Articles | Volume 13, issue 4
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1535–1555, 2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-13-1535-2022
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1535–1555, 2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-13-1535-2022
Research article
07 Nov 2022
Research article | 07 Nov 2022

On the additivity of climate responses to the volcanic and solar forcing in the early 19th century

Shih-Wei Fang et al.

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Cited articles

Anet, J. G., Muthers, S., Rozanov, E., Raible, C. C., Peter, T., Stenke, A., Shapiro, A. I., Beer, J., Steinhilber, F., Brönnimann, S., Arfeuille, F., Brugnara, Y., and Schmutz, W.: Forcing of stratospheric chemistry and dynamics during the Dalton Minimum, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10951–10967, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-10951-2013, 2013. 
Anet, J. G., Muthers, S., Rozanov, E. V., Raible, C. C., Stenke, A., Shapiro, A. I., Brönnimann, S., Arfeuille, F., Brugnara, Y., Beer, J., Steinhilber, F., Schmutz, W., and Peter, T.: Impact of solar versus volcanic activity variations on tropospheric temperatures and precipitation during the Dalton Minimum, Clim. Past, 10, 921–938, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-10-921-2014, 2014. 
Block, K. and Mauritsen, T.: Forcing and feedback in the MPI-ESM-LR coupled model under abruptly quadrupled CO2, J. Adv. Modeling Earth Syst., 5, 676–691, https://doi.org/10.1002/jame.20041, 2013. 
Brönnimann, S., Franke, J., Nussbaumer, S. U., Zumbühl, H. J., Steiner, D., Trachsel, M., Hegerl, G. C., Schurer, A., Worni, M., Malik, A., Flückiger, J., and Raible, C. C.: Last phase of the Little Ice Age forced by volcanic eruptions, Nat. Geosci., 12, 650–656, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0402-y, 2019. 
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The early 19th century was the coldest period over the past 500 years, when strong tropical volcanic events and a solar minimum coincided. This study quantifies potential surface cooling from the solar and volcanic forcing in the early 19th century with large ensemble simulations, and identifies the regions that their impacts cannot be simply additive. The cooling perspective of Arctic amplification exists in both solar and post-volcano period with the albedo feedback as the main contribution.
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