Articles | Volume 13, issue 1
16 Feb 2022
Review |  | 16 Feb 2022

Salinity dynamics of the Baltic Sea

Andreas Lehmann, Kai Myrberg, Piia Post, Irina Chubarenko, Inga Dailidiene, Hans-Harald Hinrichsen, Karin Hüssy, Taavi Liblik, H. E. Markus Meier, Urmas Lips, and Tatiana Bukanova

Related authors

Climate change in the Baltic Sea region: a summary
H. E. Markus Meier, Madline Kniebusch, Christian Dieterich, Matthias Gröger, Eduardo Zorita, Ragnar Elmgren, Kai Myrberg, Markus P. Ahola, Alena Bartosova, Erik Bonsdorff, Florian Börgel, Rene Capell, Ida Carlén, Thomas Carlund, Jacob Carstensen, Ole B. Christensen, Volker Dierschke, Claudia Frauen, Morten Frederiksen, Elie Gaget, Anders Galatius, Jari J. Haapala, Antti Halkka, Gustaf Hugelius, Birgit Hünicke, Jaak Jaagus, Mart Jüssi, Jukka Käyhkö, Nina Kirchner, Erik Kjellström, Karol Kulinski, Andreas Lehmann, Göran Lindström, Wilhelm May, Paul A. Miller, Volker Mohrholz, Bärbel Müller-Karulis, Diego Pavón-Jordán, Markus Quante, Marcus Reckermann, Anna Rutgersson, Oleg P. Savchuk, Martin Stendel, Laura Tuomi, Markku Viitasalo, Ralf Weisse, and Wenyan Zhang
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 457–593,,, 2022
Short summary
Variability of atmospheric circulation patterns associated with large volume changes of the Baltic Sea
A. Lehmann and P. Post
Adv. Sci. Res., 12, 219–225,,, 2015
Long-term trends at the Boknis Eck time series station (Baltic Sea), 1957–2013: does climate change counteract the decline in eutrophication?
S. T. Lennartz, A. Lehmann, J. Herrford, F. Malien, H.-P. Hansen, H. Biester, and H. W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 11, 6323–6339,,, 2014
Short summary
Natural variability in hard-bottom communities and possible drivers assessed by a time-series study in the SW Baltic Sea: know the noise to detect the change
M. Wahl, H.-H. Hinrichsen, A. Lehmann, and M. Lenz
Biogeosciences, 10, 5227–5242,,, 2013

Related subject area

Dynamics of the Earth system: interactions
Continental heat storage: contributions from the ground, inland waters, and permafrost thawing
Francisco José Cuesta-Valero, Hugo Beltrami, Almudena García-García, Gerhard Krinner, Moritz Langer, Andrew H. MacDougall, Jan Nitzbon, Jian Peng, Karina von Schuckmann, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Wim Thiery, Inne Vanderkelen, and Tonghua Wu
Earth Syst. Dynam., 14, 609–627,,, 2023
Short summary
The rate of information transfer as a measure of ocean–atmosphere interactions
David Docquier, Stéphane Vannitsem, and Alessio Bellucci
Earth Syst. Dynam., 14, 577–591,,, 2023
Short summary
Evaluation of global teleconnections in CMIP6 climate projections using complex networks
Clementine Dalelane, Kristina Winderlich, and Andreas Walter
Earth Syst. Dynam., 14, 17–37,,, 2023
Short summary
On the additivity of climate responses to the volcanic and solar forcing in the early 19th century
Shih-Wei Fang, Claudia Timmreck, Johann Jungclaus, Kirstin Krüger, and Hauke Schmidt
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1535–1555,,, 2022
Short summary
Exploring the relationship between temperature forecast errors and Earth system variables
Melissa Ruiz-Vásquez, Sungmin O, Alexander Brenning, Randal D. Koster, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Ulrich Weber, Gabriele Arduini, Ana Bastos, Markus Reichstein, and René Orth
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1451–1471,,, 2022
Short summary

Cited articles

Alenius, P., Myrberg, K., and Nekrasov, A.: The physical oceanography of the Gulf of Finland: a review, Boreal Environ. Res., 3, 97–125, 1998. 
Alenius, P., Nekrasov, A., and Myrberg, K.: Variability of the baroclinic Rossby radius in the Gulf of Finland, Cont. Shelf Res., 23, 563–573,, 2003. 
Almén, A.-K., Glippa, O., Pettersson, H., Alenius, P., and Engström-Öst, J.: Changes in wintertime pH and hydrography of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) with focus on depth layers, Environ. Monit. Assess., 189, 147,, 2017. 
Andrejev, O., Myrberg, K., Alenius, P., and Lundberg, P. A.: Mean circulation and water exchange in the Gulf of Finland-a study based on three-dimensional modelling, (last access: 22 November 2018), 2004a. 
Andrejev, O., Myrberg, K. and Lundberg, P. A.: Age and renewal time of water masses in a semi-enclosed basin – Application to the Gulf of Finland, Tellus A, 56, 548–558, 2004b. 
Short summary
The salinity in the Baltic Sea is not only an important topic for physical oceanography as such, but it also integrates the complete water and energy cycle. It is a primary external driver controlling ecosystem dynamics of the Baltic Sea. The long-term dynamics are controlled by river runoff, net precipitation, and the water mass exchange between the North Sea and Baltic Sea. On shorter timescales, the ephemeral atmospheric conditions drive a very complex and highly variable salinity regime.
Final-revised paper