Articles | Volume 12, issue 4
Research article
16 Nov 2021
Research article |  | 16 Nov 2021

Accounting for surface waves improves gas flux estimation at high wind speed in a large lake

Pascal Perolo, Bieito Fernández Castro, Nicolas Escoffier, Thibault Lambert, Damien Bouffard, and Marie-Elodie Perga

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Cited articles

Amini, A., Dhont, B., and Heller, P.: Wave atlas for Swiss lakes: modeling design waves in mountainous lakes, Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, 5, 103–113,, 2016. 
Bastviken, D., Sundgren, I., Natchimuthu, S., Reyier, H., and Gålfalk, M.: Technical Note: Cost-efficient approaches to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic environments using mini loggers, Biogeosciences, 12, 3849–3859,, 2015. 
Borges, A. V., Vanderborght, J.-P., Schiettecatte, L.-S., Gazeau, F., Ferron-Smith, S., Delille, B., and Frankignoulle, M.: Variability of the gas transfer velocity of CO2 in a macrotidal estuary (the Scheldt), Estuaries, 27, 593–603,, 2004. 
Bouffard, D., Sukys, J., Runnals, J., and Odermatt, D.: Datalakes: Heterogeneous data platform for operational modelling and forecasting of Swiss lakes, available at:, last access: 23 February 2021. 
Carter, D. J. T.: Prediction of wave height and period for a constant wind velocity using the JONSWAP results, Ocean Eng., 9, 17–33,, 1982. 
Short summary
Wind blowing over the ocean creates waves that, by increasing the level of turbulence, promote gas exchange at the air–water interface. In this study, for the first time, we measured enhanced gas exchanges by wind-induced waves at the surface of a large lake. We adapted an ocean-based model to account for the effect of surface waves on gas exchange in lakes. We finally show that intense wind events with surface waves contribute disproportionately to the annual CO2 gas flux in a large lake.
Final-revised paper