Articles | Volume 12, issue 4
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1169–1189, 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Special issue: Modelling inland waters in a changing climate (GMD/ESD/TC...
16 Nov 2021
Research article | 16 Nov 2021
Accounting for surface waves improves gas flux estimation at high wind speed in a large lake
Pascal Perolo et al.
Thibault Lambert, Pascal Perolo, Nicolas Escoffier, and Marie-Elodie Perga
Biogeosciences, 19, 187–200,Short summary
The bacterial mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in inland waters contributes to CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Human activities affect DOM sources. However, the implications on DOM mineralization are poorly known. Combining sampling and incubations, we showed that higher bacterial respiration in agro-urban streams related to a labile pool from aquatic origin. Therefore, human activities may have a limited impact on the net carbon exchanges between inland waters and atmosphere.
Malgorzata Golub, Wim Thiery, Rafael Marcé, Don Pierson, Inne Vanderkelen, Daniel Mercado-Bettin, R. Iestyn Woolway, Luke Grant, Eleanor Jennings, Benjamin M. Kraemer, Jacob Schewe, Fang Zhao, Katja Frieler, Matthias Mengel, Vasiliy Y. Bogomolov, Damien Bouffard, Marianne Côté, Raoul-Marie Couture, Andrey V. Debolskiy, Bram Droppers, Gideon Gal, Mingyang Guo, Annette B. G. Janssen, Georgiy Kirillin, Robert Ladwig, Madeline Magee, Tadhg Moore, Marjorie Perroud, Sebastiano Piccolroaz, Love Raaman Vinnaa, Martin Schmid, Tom Shatwell, Victor M. Stepanenko, Zeli Tan, Bronwyn Woodward, Huaxia Yao, Rita Adrian, Mathew Allan, Orlane Anneville, Lauri Arvola, Karen Atkins, Leon Boegman, Cayelan Carey, Kyle Christianson, Elvira de Eyto, Curtis DeGasperi, Maria Grechushnikova, Josef Hejzlar, Klaus Joehnk, Ian D. Jones, Alo Laas, Eleanor B. Mackay, Ivan Mammarella, Hampus Markensten, Chris McBride, Deniz Özkundakci, Miguel Potes, Karsten Rinke, Dale Robertson, James A. Rusak, Rui Salgado, Leon van der Linden, Piet Verburg, Danielle Wain, Nicole K. Ward, Sabine Wollrab, and Galina Zdorovennova
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4597–4623,Short summary
Lakes and reservoirs are warming across the globe. To better understand how lakes are changing and to project their future behavior amidst various sources of uncertainty, simulations with a range of lake models are required. This in turn requires international coordination across different lake modelling teams worldwide. Here we present a protocol for and results from coordinated simulations of climate change impacts on lakes worldwide.
Olivia Desgué-Itier, Laura Melo Vieira Soares, Orlane Anneville, Damien Bouffard, Vincent Chanudet, Pierre-Alain Danis, Isabelle Domaizon, Jean Guillard, Théo Mazure, Najwa Sharaf, Frédéric Soulignac, Viet Tran-Khac, Brigitte Vinçon-Leite, and Jean-Philippe Jenny
The long-term effects of climate change will include an increase in lake surface and deep water temperatures. Incorporating up to six decades of limnological monitoring into an improved 1D lake model approach allows us to predict thermal regime and oxygen solubility in four perialpine lakes over the period 1850–2100. Our modeling approach includes a revised selection of forcing variables and provides a way to investigate the impacts of climate variations on lakes for centennial timescales.
Tomy Doda, Cintia L. Ramón, Hugo N. Ulloa, Alfred Wüest, and Damien Bouffard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 331–353,Short summary
At night or during cold periods, the shallow littoral region of lakes cools faster than their deeper interior. This induces a cold downslope current that carries littoral waters offshore. From a 1-year-long database collected in a small temperate lake, we resolve the seasonality of this current and report its frequent occurrence from summer to winter. This study contributes to a better quantification of lateral exchange in lakes, with implications for the transport of dissolved compounds.
Thibault Lambert, Pascal Perolo, Nicolas Escoffier, and Marie-Elodie Perga
Biogeosciences, 19, 187–200,Short summary
The bacterial mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in inland waters contributes to CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Human activities affect DOM sources. However, the implications on DOM mineralization are poorly known. Combining sampling and incubations, we showed that higher bacterial respiration in agro-urban streams related to a labile pool from aquatic origin. Therefore, human activities may have a limited impact on the net carbon exchanges between inland waters and atmosphere.
Marco Toffolon, Luca Cortese, and Damien Bouffard
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7527–7543,Short summary
The time when lakes freeze varies considerably from year to year. A common way to predict it is to use negative degree days, i.e., the sum of air temperatures below 0 °C, a proxy for the heat lost to the atmosphere. Here, we show that this is insufficient as the mixing of the surface layer induced by wind tends to delay the formation of ice. To do so, we developed a minimal model based on a simplified energy balance, which can be used both for large-scale analyses and short-term predictions.
Artur Safin, Damien Bouffard, Firat Ozdemir, Cintia L. Ramón, James Runnalls, Fotis Georgatos, Camille Minaudo, and Jonas Šukys
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
Reconciling the differences between numerical model predictions and observational data is always a challenge. In this paper, we investigate the viability of a novel approach to the calibration of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Lake Geneva, where the target parameters are inferred in terms of distributions. We employ a filtering technique that generates physically consistent model trajectories, and implement a neural network to enable bulk-to-skin temperature conversion.
Nadia Burgoa, Francisco Machín, Ángel Rodríguez-Santana, Ángeles Marrero-Díaz, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Bieito Fernández-Castro, María Dolores Gelado-Caballero, and Javier Arístegui
Ocean Sci., 17, 769–788,Short summary
The circulation patterns in the confluence of the North Atlantic subtropical and tropical gyres delimited by the Cape Verde Front were examined during a field cruise in summer 2017. The collected hydrographic data, O2 and inorganic nutrients along the perimeter of a closed box embracing the Cape Verde Frontal Zone allowed for the independent estimation of the transport of these properties.
Cintia L. Ramón, Hugo N. Ulloa, Tomy Doda, Kraig B. Winters, and Damien Bouffard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1813–1825,Short summary
When solar radiation penetrates the frozen surface of lakes, shallower zones underneath warm faster than deep interior waters. This numerical study shows that the transport of excess heat to the lake interior depends on the lake circulation, affected by Earth's rotation, and controls the lake warming rates and the spatial distribution of the heat flux across the ice–water interface. This work contributes to the understanding of the circulation and thermal structure patterns of ice-covered lakes.
Harriet L. Wilson, Ana I. Ayala, Ian D. Jones, Alec Rolston, Don Pierson, Elvira de Eyto, Hans-Peter Grossart, Marie-Elodie Perga, R. Iestyn Woolway, and Eleanor Jennings
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5559–5577,Short summary
Lakes are often described in terms of vertical layers. The
epilimnionrefers to the warm surface layer that is homogeneous due to mixing. The depth of the epilimnion can influence air–water exchanges and the vertical distribution of biological variables. We compared various methods for defining the epilimnion layer and found large variability between methods. Certain methods may be better suited for applications such as multi-lake comparison and assessing the impact of climate change.
Theo Baracchini, Philip Y. Chu, Jonas Šukys, Gian Lieberherr, Stefan Wunderle, Alfred Wüest, and Damien Bouffard
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1267–1284,Short summary
Lake physical processes occur at a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. 3D hydrodynamic lake models are the only information source capable of solving those scales; however, they still need observations to be calibrated and to constrain their uncertainties. The optimal combination of a 3D hydrodynamic model, in situ measurements, and remote sensing observations is achieved through data assimilation. Here we present a complete data assimilation experiment for lakes using open-source tools.
Alberto V. Borges, François Darchambeau, Thibault Lambert, Cédric Morana, George H. Allen, Ernest Tambwe, Alfred Toengaho Sembaito, Taylor Mambo, José Nlandu Wabakhangazi, Jean-Pierre Descy, Cristian R. Teodoru, and Steven Bouillon
Biogeosciences, 16, 3801–3834,Short summary
Tropical rivers might be strong sources of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, although there is an enormous data gap. The origin of CO2 in lowland tropical rivers is not well characterized and can be from terra firme or from wetlands (flooded forests and aquatic macrophytes). We obtained a large field dataset of CO2, CH4 and N2O in the Congo, the second-largest river in the world, which allows us to quantity the emission of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and investigate their origin.
Adrien Gaudard, Love Råman Vinnå, Fabian Bärenbold, Martin Schmid, and Damien Bouffard
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3955–3974,Short summary
We have developed an openly accessible web-based platform for visualization and promotion of easy access to one-dimensional hydrodynamic lake model output data updated in near-real time (simstrat.eawag.ch). This platform was developed for 54 lakes in Switzerland, with potential for adaptation to other regional areas or even at a global worldwide scale using appropriate forcing input data.
Jose Luis Otero-Ferrer, Pedro Cermeño, Antonio Bode, Bieito Fernández-Castro, Josep M. Gasol, Xosé Anxelu G. Morán, Emilio Marañon, Victor Moreira-Coello, Marta M. Varela, Marina Villamaña, and Beatriz Mouriño-Carballido
Biogeosciences, 15, 6199–6220,Short summary
The effect of inorganic nutrients on planktonic assemblages has been traditionally assessed by looking at concentrations rather than fluxes of nutrient supply. However, in near-steady-state systems such as subtropical gyres, nitrate concentrations are kept close to the detection limit due to phytoplankton uptake. Our results, based on direct measurements of nitrate diffusive fluxes, support the key role of nitrate supply in controlling the structure of marine picoplankton communities.
Love Råman Vinnå, Alfred Wüest, Massimiliano Zappa, Gabriel Fink, and Damien Bouffard
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 31–51,Short summary
Responses of inland waters to climate change vary on global and regional scales. Shifts in river discharge regimes act as positive and negative feedbacks in influencing water temperature. The extent of this effect on warming is controlled by the change in river discharge and lake hydraulic residence time. A shift of deep penetrating river intrusions from summer towards winter can potentially counteract the otherwise negative climate effects on deep-water oxygen content.
Adrien Gaudard, Robert Schwefel, Love Råman Vinnå, Martin Schmid, Alfred Wüest, and Damien Bouffard
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3411–3423,Short summary
The study of lakes often uses numerical models to reproduce the processes occurring in nature as accurately as possible. Due to the complexity of natural systems, all numerical models need to leave aside or simplify many of the relevant processes. In this work, we improve the modelling of the impact of wind on the internal currents in deep lakes. This improves the reproduction of deep mixing, which influences the concentrations of oxygen and nutrients, with biological and chemical consequences.
Thibault Lambert, Steven Bouillon, François Darchambeau, Philippe Massicotte, and Alberto V. Borges
Biogeosciences, 13, 5405–5420,Short summary
This paper aims to investigate the spatial variability in dissolved organic matter (DOM) in terms of both concentration and composition in the Congo River network. Stable carbon isotopes and absorption and fluorescent properties of DOM were used as proxies for DOM composition. This study shows that DOM degradation within the Congo Basin results in the transition from aromatic to aliphatic DOM as well as the role of landscape and water residence time on this transition.
Damien Bouffard and Marie-Elodie Perga
Biogeosciences, 13, 3573–3584,Short summary
This survey of an exceptional flood over Lake Geneva challenges the long-standing hypothesis that dense, particle-loaded and oxygenated rivers plunging into lakes necessarily contribute to deep-oxygen replenishment. We identified some river intrusions as hot spots for oxygen consumption, where inputs of fresh river-borne organic matter reactivate the respiration of more refractory lacustrine organic matter in a process referred to as "priming effect".
Thibault Lambert, Cristian R. Teodoru, Frank C. Nyoni, Steven Bouillon, François Darchambeau, Philippe Massicotte, and Alberto V. Borges
Biogeosciences, 13, 2727–2741,Short summary
This manuscript presents a detailed analysis of transport and transformation of dissolved organic matter along the Zambezi River and its largest tributary. A particular focus is put on the effects of floodplains/wetlands and reservoirs as well as low-flow vs. high-flow conditions on the longitudinal patterns in DOM concentration and composition. It is the first study to present such a detailed analysis for a whole, large river system, and in particular for a tropical river other than the Amazon.
L. Jeanneau, M. Denis, A.-C. Pierson-Wickmann, G. Gruau, T. Lambert, and P. Petitjean
Biogeosciences, 12, 4333–4343,Short summary
The origin of stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a lowland headwater catchment was investigated using high-frequency sampling combined with chemical biomarker analysis. Inter-storm stream DOM corresponds to the flushing of soil DOM reservoirs, while storm stream DOM would also result from three additional mechanisms: biofilm destabilization, surface and sub-surface erosion.
Related subject area
Dynamics of the Earth system: interactionsComplex network analysis of fine particulate matter (PM2.5): transport and clusteringCO2 surface variability: from the stratosphere or not?Quantifying memory and persistence in the atmosphere–land and ocean carbon systemSalinity dynamics of the Baltic SeaImpact of urbanization on the thermal environment of the Chengdu–Chongqing urban agglomeration under complex terrainSensitivity of land–atmosphere coupling strength to changing atmospheric temperature and moisture over EuropeHuman impacts and their interactions in the Baltic Sea regionDynamic regimes of the Greenland Ice Sheet emerging from interacting melt-elevation and glacial isostatic adjustment feedbacksExploring the coupled ocean and atmosphere system with a data science approach applied to observations from the Antarctic Circumnavigation ExpeditionMultiscale fractal dimension analysis of a reduced order model of coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamicsModelling sea-level fingerprints of glaciated regions with low mantle viscosityJarzynski equality and Crooks relation for local models of air–sea interactionInteracting tipping elements increase risk of climate domino effects under global warmingA climate network perspective on the intertropical convergence zoneSpatiotemporal patterns of synchronous heavy rainfall events in East Asia during the Baiu seasonRankings of extreme and widespread dry and wet events in the Iberian Peninsula between 1901 and 2016Stratospheric ozone and quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) interaction with the tropical troposphere on intraseasonal and interannual timescales: a normal-mode perspectiveDaytime low-level clouds in West Africa – occurrence, associated drivers, and shortwave radiation attenuationWater transport among the world ocean basins within the water cycleEconomic impacts of a glacial period: a thought experiment to assess the disconnect between econometrics and climate sciencesSemi-equilibrated global sea-level change projections for the next 10 000 yearsThe synergistic impact of ENSO and IOD on Indian summer monsoon rainfall in observations and climate simulations – an information theory perspectiveClimate change as an incentive for future human migrationCompound warm–dry and cold–wet events over the MediterraneanClimate–groundwater dynamics inferred from GRACE and the role of hydraulic memoryMesoscale atmospheric circulation controls of local meteorological elevation gradients on Kersten Glacier near Kilimanjaro summitOn the interconnections among major climate modes and their common driving factorsEurasian autumn snow link to winter North Atlantic Oscillation is strongest for Arctic warming periodsBack to the future II: tidal evolution of four supercontinent scenariosConcurrent wet and dry hydrological extremes at the global scaleSynthesis and evaluation of historical meridional heat transport from midlatitudes towards the ArcticAmplified warming of seasonal cold extremes relative to the mean in the Northern Hemisphere extratropicsTropical and mid-latitude teleconnections interacting with the Indian summer monsoon rainfall: a theory-guided causal effect network approachAnalysis of the position and strength of westerlies and trades with implications for Agulhas leakage and South Benguela upwellingOrganization of dust storms and synoptic-scale transport of dust by Kelvin wavesESD Reviews: Climate feedbacks in the Earth system and prospects for their evaluationNorth Pacific subtropical sea surface temperature frontogenesis and its connection with the atmosphere aboveThe multi-scale structure of atmospheric energetic constraints on globally averaged precipitationPotential of global land water recycling to mitigate local temperature extremesPipes to Earth's subsurface: the role of atmospheric conditions in controlling air transport through boreholes and shaftsCausal dependences between the coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamics over the tropical Pacific, the North Pacific and the North AtlanticMoisture transport and Antarctic sea ice: austral spring 2016 eventRecent changes of relative humidity: regional connections with land and ocean processesAssessments of the Northern Hemisphere snow cover response to 1.5 and 2.0 °C warmingOn the social dynamics of moisture recyclingRecent trends in the frequency and duration of global floodsTwo drastically different climate states on an Earth-like terra-planetSpatial–temporal changes in runoff and terrestrial ecosystem water retention under 1.5 and 2 °C warming scenarios across ChinaInterannual variability in the gravity wave drag – vertical coupling and possible climate linksA new pattern of the moisture transport for precipitation related to the drastic decline in Arctic sea ice extent
Na Ying, Wansuo Duan, Zhidan Zhao, and Jingfang Fan
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1029–1039,Short summary
A complex PM2.5 measurement network has been built to investigate transport patterns and cooperative regions in China. Network-based degree measurements are used to reveal the spatial transport pattern of PM2.5. The study also attempts to investigate the seasonal transport path of PM2.5. In addition, the cooperation regions of PM2.5 are quantified according to their synchronicity characteristics. The proposed study can be applied to other air pollutant data, such as ozone and NOx.
Michael J. Prather
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 703–709,Short summary
Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations point to changes in fossil fuel emissions plus natural and perturbed variations in the natural carbon cycle. One unstudied source of variability is the stratosphere, where the influx of aged CO2-depleted air can cause surface fluctuations. Using modeling and, separately, scaling the observed N2O variability, I find that stratosphere-driven surface variability in CO2 is not a significant uncertainty (at most 10 % of the observed interannual variability).
Matthias Jonas, Rostyslav Bun, Iryna Ryzha, and Piotr Żebrowski
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 439–455,Short summary
We interpret carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning and land use as a global stress–strain experiment to reflect the overall behavior of the atmosphere–land and ocean system in response to increasing CO2 emissions since 1850. The system has been trapped progressively in terms of persistence, while its ability to build up memory has been reduced. We expect system failures globally well before 2050 if the current trend in emissions is not reversed immediately and sustainably.
Andreas Lehmann, Kai Myrberg, Piia Post, Irina Chubarenko, Inga Dailidiene, Hans-Harald Hinrichsen, Karin Hüssy, Taavi Liblik, H. E. Markus Meier, Urmas Lips, and Tatiana Bukanova
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 373–392,Short summary
The salinity in the Baltic Sea is not only an important topic for physical oceanography as such, but it also integrates the complete water and energy cycle. It is a primary external driver controlling ecosystem dynamics of the Baltic Sea. The long-term dynamics are controlled by river runoff, net precipitation, and the water mass exchange between the North Sea and Baltic Sea. On shorter timescales, the ephemeral atmospheric conditions drive a very complex and highly variable salinity regime.
Si Chen, Zhenghui Xie, Jinbo Xie, Bin Liu, Binghao Jia, Peihua Qin, Longhuan Wang, Yan Wang, and Ruichao Li
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 341–356,Short summary
This study discusses the changes in the summer thermal environment in the Chengdu–Chongqing urban agglomeration due to urban expansion in complex terrain conditions in the recent 40 years, using high-resolution simulations with the WRF model. We quantify the influence of a single urban expansion factor and a single complex terrain factor on the urban thermal environment. Under the joint influence of complex terrain and urban expansion, the heat island effect caused by urbanization was enhanced.
Lisa Jach, Thomas Schwitalla, Oliver Branch, Kirsten Warrach-Sagi, and Volker Wulfmeyer
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 109–132,Short summary
The land surface can influence the occurrence of local rainfall through different feedback mechanisms. In Europe, this happens most frequently in summer. Here, we examine how differences in atmospheric temperature and moisture change where and how often the land surface can influence rainfall. The results show that the differences barely move the region of strong surface influence over Scandinavia and eastern Europe, but they can change the frequency of coupling events.
Marcus Reckermann, Anders Omstedt, Tarmo Soomere, Juris Aigars, Naveed Akhtar, Magdalena Bełdowska, Jacek Bełdowski, Tom Cronin, Michał Czub, Margit Eero, Kari Petri Hyytiäinen, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Anders Kiessling, Erik Kjellström, Karol Kuliński, Xiaoli Guo Larsén, Michelle McCrackin, H. E. Markus Meier, Sonja Oberbeckmann, Kevin Parnell, Cristian Pons-Seres de Brauwer, Anneli Poska, Jarkko Saarinen, Beata Szymczycha, Emma Undeman, Anders Wörman, and Eduardo Zorita
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1–80,Short summary
As part of the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports (BEAR), we present an inventory and discussion of different human-induced factors and processes affecting the environment of the Baltic Sea region and their interrelations. Some are naturally occurring and modified by human activities, others are completely human-induced, and they are all interrelated to different degrees. The findings from this study can largely be transferred to other comparable marginal and coastal seas in the world.
Maria Zeitz, Jan M. Haacker, Jonathan F. Donges, Torsten Albrecht, and Ricarda Winkelmann
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESDShort summary
The stability of the Greenland Ice Sheet under global warming is crucial. Here, using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, we study how to the interplay of feedbacks between the ice sheet and the atmosphere and solid Earth affect the long-term response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Our findings suggest four distinct dynamic regimes of the Greenland Ice Sheets on the route to destabilization under global warming – from recovery, via quasi-periodic oscillations in ice volume to ice-sheet collapse.
Sebastian Landwehr, Michele Volpi, F. Alexander Haumann, Charlotte M. Robinson, Iris Thurnherr, Valerio Ferracci, Andrea Baccarini, Jenny Thomas, Irina Gorodetskaya, Christian Tatzelt, Silvia Henning, Rob L. Modini, Heather J. Forrer, Yajuan Lin, Nicolas Cassar, Rafel Simó, Christel Hassler, Alireza Moallemi, Sarah E. Fawcett, Neil Harris, Ruth Airs, Marzieh H. Derkani, Alberto Alberello, Alessandro Toffoli, Gang Chen, Pablo Rodríguez-Ros, Marina Zamanillo, Pau Cortés-Greus, Lei Xue, Conor G. Bolas, Katherine C. Leonard, Fernando Perez-Cruz, David Walton, and Julia Schmale
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1295–1369,Short summary
The Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition surveyed a large number of variables describing the dynamic state of ocean and atmosphere, freshwater cycle, atmospheric chemistry, ocean biogeochemistry, and microbiology in the Southern Ocean. To reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, we apply a sparse principal component analysis and identify temporal patterns from diurnal to seasonal cycles, as well as geographical gradients and
hotspotsof interaction. Code and data are open access.
Tommaso Alberti, Reik V. Donner, and Stéphane Vannitsem
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 837–855,Short summary
We provide a novel approach to diagnose the strength of the ocean–atmosphere coupling by using both a reduced order model and reanalysis data. Our findings suggest the ocean–atmosphere dynamics presents a rich variety of features, moving from a chaotic to a coherent coupled dynamics, mainly attributed to the atmosphere and only marginally to the ocean. Our observations suggest further investigations in characterizing the occurrence and spatial dependency of the ocean–atmosphere coupling.
Alan Bartholet, Glenn A. Milne, and Konstantin Latychev
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 783–795,Short summary
Improving the accuracy of regional sea-level projections is an important aim that will impact estimates of sea-level hazard around the globe. The computation of sea-level fingerprints is a key component of any such projection, and to date these computations have been based on the assumption that elastic deformation accurately describes the solid Earth response on century timescales. We show here that this assumption is inaccurate in some glaciated regions characterized by low mantle viscosity.
Achim Wirth and Florian Lemarié
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 689–708,Short summary
We show that modern concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics can be applied to large-scale environmental fluid dynamics, where fluctuations are not thermal but come from turbulence. The work theorems developed by Jarzynski and Crooks are applied to air–sea interaction. Rather than looking at the average values of thermodynamic variables, their probability density functions are considered, which allows us to replace the inequalities of equilibrium statistical mechanics with equalities.
Nico Wunderling, Jonathan F. Donges, Jürgen Kurths, and Ricarda Winkelmann
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 601–619,Short summary
In the Earth system, climate tipping elements exist that can undergo qualitative changes in response to environmental perturbations. If triggered, this would result in severe consequences for the biosphere and human societies. We quantify the risk of tipping cascades using a conceptual but fully dynamic network approach. We uncover that the risk of tipping cascades under global warming scenarios is enormous and find that the continental ice sheets are most likely to initiate these failures.
Frederik Wolf, Aiko Voigt, and Reik V. Donner
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 353–366,Short summary
In our work, we employ complex networks to study the relation between the time mean position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and sea surface temperature (SST) variability. We show that the information hidden in different spatial SST correlation patterns, which we access utilizing complex networks, is strongly correlated with the time mean position of the ITCZ. This research contributes to the ongoing discussion on drivers of the annual migration of the ITCZ.
Frederik Wolf, Ugur Ozturk, Kevin Cheung, and Reik V. Donner
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 295–312,Short summary
Motivated by a lacking onset prediction scheme, we examine the temporal evolution of synchronous heavy rainfall associated with the East Asian Monsoon System employing a network approach. We find, that the evolution of the Baiu front is associated with the formation of a spatially separated double band of synchronous rainfall. Furthermore, we identify the South Asian Anticyclone and the North Pacific Subtropical High as the main drivers, which have been assumed to be independent previously.
Margarida L. R. Liberato, Irene Montero, Célia Gouveia, Ana Russo, Alexandre M. Ramos, and Ricardo M. Trigo
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 197–210,Short summary
Extensive, long-standing dry and wet episodes are frequent climatic extreme events (EEs) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). A method for ranking regional extremes of persistent, widespread drought and wet events is presented, using different SPEI timescales. Results show that there is no region more prone to EE occurrences in the IP, the most extreme extensive agricultural droughts evolve into hydrological and more persistent extreme droughts, and widespread wet and dry EEs are anti-correlated.
Breno Raphaldini, André S. W. Teruya, Pedro Leite da Silva Dias, Lucas Massaroppe, and Daniel Yasumasa Takahashi
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 83–101,Short summary
Several recent studies suggest a modulation of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). The physics behind this interaction, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the QBO–MJO interaction and the role of stratospheric ozone as a forcing mechanism. A normal-mode decomposition procedure combined with causality analysis reveals significant interactions between MJO-related modes and QBO-related modes.
Derrick K. Danso, Sandrine Anquetin, Arona Diedhiou, Kouakou Kouadio, and Arsène T. Kobea
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 1133–1152,Short summary
The atmospheric and surface conditions that exist during the occurrence of daytime low-level clouds (LLCs) and their influence on solar radiation were investigated in West Africa. During the monsoon season, these LLCs are linked to high moisture flux driven by strong southwesterly winds from the Gulf of Guinea and significant background moisture levels. Their occurrence leads to a strong reduction in the incoming solar radiation and has large impacts on the surface energy budget.
David García-García, Isabel Vigo, and Mario Trottini
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 1089–1106,Short summary
The global water cycle involves water-mass transport on land, in the atmosphere, in the ocean, and among them. The GRACE mission has allowed for the quantification of water-mass variations. It was a revolution in the understanding of Earth dynamics. Here, we develop and apply a novel method, based on GRACE data and atmospheric models, that allows systematic estimation of water-mass exchange among ocean basins. This is valuable for understanding the role of the ocean within the water cycle.
Marie-Noëlle Woillez, Gaël Giraud, and Antoine Godin
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 1073–1087,Short summary
To illustrate the fact that future economic damage from global warming is often highly underestimated, we applied two different statistically based damage functions available in the literature to a global cooling of 4 °C. We show that the gross domestic product (GDP) projections obtained are at odds with the state of the planet during an ice age. We conclude that such functions do not provide relevant information on potential damage from a large climate change, be it cooling or warming.
Jonas Van Breedam, Heiko Goelzer, and Philippe Huybrechts
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 953–976,Short summary
We made projections of global mean sea-level change during the next 10 000 years for a range in climate forcing scenarios ranging from a peak in carbon dioxide concentrations in the next decades to burning most of the available carbon reserves over the next 2 centuries. We find that global mean sea level will rise between 9 and 37 m, depending on the emission of greenhouse gases. In this study, we investigated the long-term consequence of climate change for sea-level rise.
Praveen Kumar Pothapakula, Cristina Primo, Silje Sørland, and Bodo Ahrens
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 903–923,Short summary
Information exchange (IE) from the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) is investigated. Observational data show that IOD and ENSO synergistically exchange information on ISMR variability over central India. IE patterns observed in three global climate models (GCMs) differ from observations. Our study highlights new perspectives that IE metrics could bring to climate science.
Min Chen and Ken Caldeira
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 875–883,Short summary
We examine the implications of future motivation for humans to migrate by analyzing today’s relationships between climatic factors and population density, with all other factors held constant. Such analyses are unlikely to make accurate predictions but can still be useful for informing discussions about the broad range of incentives that might influence migration decisions. Areas with the highest projected population growth rates tend to be the areas most adversely affected by climate change.
Paolo De Luca, Gabriele Messori, Davide Faranda, Philip J. Ward, and Dim Coumou
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 793–805,Short summary
In this paper we quantify Mediterranean compound temperature and precipitation dynamical extremes (CDEs) over the 1979–2018 period. The strength of the temperature–precipitation coupling during summer increased and is driven by surface warming. We also link the CDEs to compound hot–dry and cold–wet events during summer and winter respectively.
Simon Opie, Richard G. Taylor, Chris M. Brierley, Mohammad Shamsudduha, and Mark O. Cuthbert
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 775–791,Short summary
Knowledge of the relationship between climate and groundwater is limited and typically undermined by the scale, duration and accessibility of observations. Using monthly satellite measurements newly compiled over 14 years in the tropics and sub-tropics, we show that the imprint of precipitation history on groundwater, i.e. hydraulic memory, is longer in drylands than humid environments with important implications for the understanding and management of groundwater resources under climate change.
Thomas Mölg, Douglas R. Hardy, Emily Collier, Elena Kropač, Christina Schmid, Nicolas J. Cullen, Georg Kaser, Rainer Prinz, and Michael Winkler
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 653–672,Short summary
The glaciers on Kilimanjaro summit are like sample spots of the climate in the tropical mid-troposphere. Measurements of air temperature, air humidity, and precipitation with automated weather stations show that the differences in these meteorological elements between two altitudes (~ 5600 and ~ 5900 m) vary significantly over the day and the seasons, in concert with airflow dynamics around the mountain. Knowledge of these variations will improve atmosphere and cryosphere models.
Xinnong Pan, Geli Wang, Peicai Yang, Jun Wang, and Anastasios A. Tsonis
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 525–535,Short summary
The variations in oceanic and atmospheric modes play important roles in global and regional climate variability. The relationships between their variations and regional climate variability have been extensively examined, but the interconnections among these climate modes remain unclear. We show that the base periods and their harmonic oscillations that appear to be related to QBO, ENSO, and solar activities act as key connections among the climatic modes with synchronous behaviors.
Martin Wegmann, Marco Rohrer, María Santolaria-Otín, and Gerrit Lohmann
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 509–524,Short summary
Predicting the climate of the upcoming season is of big societal benefit, but finding out which component of the climate system can act as a predictor is difficult. In this study, we focus on Eurasian snow cover as such a component and show that knowing the snow cover in November is very helpful in predicting the state of winter over Europe. However, this mechanism was questioned in the past. Using snow data that go back 150 years into the past, we are now very confident in this relationship.
Hannah S. Davies, J. A. Mattias Green, and Joao C. Duarte
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 291–299,Short summary
We have confirmed that there is a supertidal cycle associated with the supercontinent cycle. As continents drift due to plate tectonics, oceans also change size, controlling the strength of the tides and causing periods of supertides. In this work, we used a coupled tectonic–tidal model of Earth's future to test four different scenarios that undergo different styles of ocean closure and periods of supertides. This has implications for the Earth system and for other planets with liquid oceans.
Paolo De Luca, Gabriele Messori, Robert L. Wilby, Maurizio Mazzoleni, and Giuliano Di Baldassarre
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 251–266,Short summary
We show that floods and droughts can co-occur in time across remote regions on the globe and introduce metrics that can help in quantifying concurrent wet and dry hydrological extremes. We then link wet–dry extremes to major modes of climate variability (i.e. ENSO, PDO, and AMO) and provide their spatial patterns. Such concurrent extreme hydrological events may pose risks to regional hydropower production and agricultural yields.
Yang Liu, Jisk Attema, Ben Moat, and Wilco Hazeleger
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 77–96,Short summary
Poleward meridional energy transport (MET) has significant impact on the climate in the Arctic. In this study, we quantify and intercompare MET at subpolar latitudes from six reanalysis data sets. The results indicate that the spatial distribution and temporal variations of MET differ substantially among the reanalysis data sets. Our study suggests that the MET estimated from reanalyses is useful for the evaluation of energy transports but should be used with great care.
Mia H. Gross, Markus G. Donat, Lisa V. Alexander, and Steven C. Sherwood
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 97–111,Short summary
This study explores the amplified warming of cold extremes relative to average temperatures for both the recent past and future in the Northern Hemisphere and the possible physical processes that are driving this. We find that decreases in snow cover and warmer-than-usual winds are driving the disproportionate rates of warming in cold extremes relative to average temperatures. These accelerated warming rates in cold extremes have implications for tourism, insect longevity and human health.
Giorgia Di Capua, Marlene Kretschmer, Reik V. Donner, Bart van den Hurk, Ramesh Vellore, Raghavan Krishnan, and Dim Coumou
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 17–34,Short summary
Drivers from both the mid-latitudes and the tropical regions have been proposed to influence the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) subseasonal variability. To understand the relative importance of tropical and mid-latitude drivers, we apply recently developed causal discovery techniques to disentangle the causal relationships among these processes. Our results show that there is indeed a two-way interaction between the mid-latitude circulation and ISM rainfall over central India.
Nele Tim, Eduardo Zorita, Kay-Christian Emeis, Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Arne Biastoch, and Birgit Hünicke
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 847–858,Short summary
Our study reveals that the latitudinal position and intensity of Southern Hemisphere trades and westerlies are correlated. In the last decades the westerlies have shifted poleward and intensified. Furthermore, the latitudinal shifts and intensity of the trades and westerlies impact the sea surface temperatures around southern Africa and in the South Benguela upwelling region. The future development of wind stress depends on the strength of greenhouse gas forcing.
Ashok Kumar Pokharel and Michael L. Kaplan
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 651–666,Short summary
This study contributes to a better understanding of how large-scale dust transport can be organized from northwest Africa to the US, Amazon basin, and Europe and might be due in part to Kelvin waves. We also think there is still a need to study major historical dust events that occurred in this region to confirm that this location is suitable and responsible for the generation of the Kelvin waves and the transport of dust on a regular basis.
Christoph Heinze, Veronika Eyring, Pierre Friedlingstein, Colin Jones, Yves Balkanski, William Collins, Thierry Fichefet, Shuang Gao, Alex Hall, Detelina Ivanova, Wolfgang Knorr, Reto Knutti, Alexander Löw, Michael Ponater, Martin G. Schultz, Michael Schulz, Pier Siebesma, Joao Teixeira, George Tselioudis, and Martin Vancoppenolle
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 379–452,Short summary
Earth system models for producing climate projections under given forcings include additional processes and feedbacks that traditional physical climate models do not consider. We present an overview of climate feedbacks for key Earth system components and discuss the evaluation of these feedbacks. The target group for this article includes generalists with a background in natural sciences and an interest in climate change as well as experts working in interdisciplinary climate research.
Leying Zhang, Haiming Xu, Jing Ma, Ning Shi, and Jiechun Deng
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 261–270,Short summary
Net heat flux dominates the frontogenesis of the NPSTF from October to December, while oceanic meridional temperature advection contributes equally as much or even more net heat flux in January and February. The atmosphere is critical to frontogenesis through net heat flux and the Aleutian low, the latter of which benefits meridional temperature advection.
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 219–232,
Mathias Hauser, Wim Thiery, and Sonia Isabelle Seneviratne
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 157–169,Short summary
We develop a method to keep the amount of water in the soil at the present-day level, using only local water sources in a global climate model. This leads to less drying over many land areas, but also decreases river runoff. We find that temperature extremes in the 21st century decrease substantially using our method. This provides a new perspective on how land water can influence regional climate and introduces land water management as potential tool for local mitigation of climate change.
Elad Levintal, Nadav G. Lensky, Amit Mushkin, and Noam Weisbrod
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 1141–1153,
Stéphane Vannitsem and Pierre Ekelmans
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 1063–1083,Short summary
The El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon is a slow dynamics present in the coupled ocean–atmosphere tropical Pacific system which has important teleconnections with the northern extratropics. These teleconnections are usually believed to be the source of an enhanced predictability in the northern extratropics at seasonal to decadal timescales. This question is challenged by investigating the causality between these regions using an advanced technique known as convergent cross mapping.
Monica Ionita, Patrick Scholz, Klaus Grosfeld, and Renate Treffeisen
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 939–954,Short summary
In austral spring 2016 the Antarctic region experienced anomalous sea ice retreat in all sectors, with sea ice extent in October and November 2016 being the lowest in the Southern Hemisphere over the observational record (1979–present). The extreme sea ice retreat was accompanied by the wettest and warmest spring on record, over large areas covering the Indian ocean, the Ross Sea, and the Weddell Sea.
Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Raquel Nieto, Luis Gimeno, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Anita Drumond, Ahmed El Kenawy, Fernando Dominguez-Castro, Miquel Tomas-Burguera, and Marina Peña-Gallardo
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 915–937,Short summary
We analyzed changes in surface relative humidity (RH) at the global scale from 1979 to 2014 and compared the variability and trends in RH with those in land evapotranspiration and ocean evaporation in moisture source areas across a range of selected regions worldwide. Our results stress that the different hypotheses that may explain the decrease in RH under a global warming scenario could act together to explain recent RH trends.
Aihui Wang, Lianlian Xu, and Xianghui Kong
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 865–877,Short summary
The snow cover fractions (SCFs) from the CESM 1.5°C and 2°C projects and CMIP5 are assessed. The spatiotemporal variations in the above products are grossly consistent with observations. The SFC change in RCP2.6 is comparable to that in 1.5°C, but lower than that in 2°C. The contribution of surface temperature change to SCF differs by season. The model physical parameterization plays a predominant role in snow simulations triggered by climate internal variability.
Patrick W. Keys and Lan Wang-Erlandsson
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 829–847,Short summary
Moisture recycling is the atmospheric branch of the water cycle, including evaporation and precipitation. While the physical water cycle is well-understood, the social links among the recipients of precipitation back to the sources of evaporation are not. In this work, we develop a method to determine how these social connections unfold, using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods, finding that there are distinct types of social connections with corresponding policy and management tools.
Nasser Najibi and Naresh Devineni
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 757–783,Short summary
A global assessment of flood events using the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) database is performed here to explore the planetary nature of the trends in the frequency and duration of floods (short, moderate, and long). This comprehensive study is the very first global study of
actual flood eventswhich identifies temporal changes in frequencies and characteristics of probability distribution of flood durations to understand the changing organization of the local to global dynamical systems.
Sirisha Kalidindi, Christian H. Reick, Thomas Raddatz, and Martin Claussen
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 739–756,Short summary
Using climate simulations, we investigate the role of water recycling in shaping the climate of low-obliquity Earth-like terra-planets. By such a mechanism feeding water back from the extra-tropics to the tropics, the planet can assume two drastically different climate states differing by more than 35 K in global temperature. We describe the bifurcation between the two states occurring upon changes in surface albedo and argue that the bistability hints at a wider habitable zone for such planets.
Ran Zhai, Fulu Tao, and Zhihui Xu
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 717–738,Short summary
This study investigated the changes in runoff and terrestrial ecosystem water retention (TEWR) across China under 1.5 and 2.0 °C warming scenarios by four bias-corrected GCMs using the VIC hydrological model. Results showed that TEWR remained relatively stable than runoff under warming scenarios and there were more water-related risks under the 2.0 °C than under the 1.5 °C warming scenario. Our findings are useful for water resource management under different warming scenarios.
Petr Šácha, Jiri Miksovsky, and Petr Pisoft
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 647–661,Short summary
The paper investigates variability in the gravity wave drag in the stratosphere in connection with climate phenomena like the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. This link represents a possible mechanism of tropospheric influence on the higher atmospheric layers, a mechanism of utmost importance that has not been studied in detail yet. The results illustrate that there are indeed significant changes in the gravity wave drag distribution and strength depending on the phase of the studied oscillations.
Luis Gimeno-Sotelo, Raquel Nieto, Marta Vázquez, and Luis Gimeno
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 611–625,Short summary
We have identified changes in the pattern of moisture transport for precipitation over the Arctic region, the Arctic Ocean, and its 13 main subdomains concurrent with the major sea ice decline that occurred in 2003. The pattern consists of a general decrease in moisture transport in summer and enhanced moisture transport in autumn and early winter, with different contributions depending on the moisture source and ocean subregion.
Amini, A., Dhont, B., and Heller, P.: Wave atlas for Swiss lakes: modeling design waves in mountainous lakes, Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, 5, 103–113, https://doi.org/10.1080/23249676.2016.1171733, 2016.
Bastviken, D., Sundgren, I., Natchimuthu, S., Reyier, H., and Gålfalk, M.: Technical Note: Cost-efficient approaches to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic environments using mini loggers, Biogeosciences, 12, 3849–3859, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-3849-2015, 2015.
Borges, A. V., Vanderborght, J.-P., Schiettecatte, L.-S., Gazeau, F., Ferron-Smith, S., Delille, B., and Frankignoulle, M.: Variability of the gas transfer velocity of CO2 in a macrotidal estuary (the Scheldt), Estuaries, 27, 593–603, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02907647, 2004.
Bouffard, D., Sukys, J., Runnals, J., and Odermatt, D.: Datalakes: Heterogeneous data platform for operational modelling and forecasting of Swiss lakes, available at: https://www.datalakes-eawag.ch, last access: 23 February 2021.
Carter, D. J. T.: Prediction of wave height and period for a constant wind velocity using the JONSWAP results, Ocean Eng., 9, 17–33, https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-8018(82)90042-7, 1982.
Cole, J. J. and Caraco, N. F.: Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide in a low-wind oligotrophic lake measured by the addition of SF6, Limnol. Oceanogr., 43, 647–656, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1998.43.4.0647, 1998.
Cole, J. J., Prairie, Y. T., Caraco, N. F., McDowell, W. H., Tranvik, L. J., Striegl, R. G., Duarte, C. M., Kortelainen, P., Downing, J. A., Middelburg, J. J., and Melack, J.: Plumbing the Global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget, Ecosystems, 10, 172–185, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-006-9013-8, 2007.
Cole, J. J., Bade, D. L., Bastviken, D., Pace, M. L., and de Bogert, M. V.: Multiple approaches to estimating air–water gas exchange in small lakes, Limnol. Oceanogr.-Meth., 8, 285—293, https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2010.8.285, 2010.
Crusius, J. and Wanninkhof, R.: Gas transfer velocities measured at low wind speed over a lake, Limnol. Oceanogr., 48, 1010–1017, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2003.48.3.1010, 2003.
Danckwerts, P. V.: Significance of liquid-film coefficient in gas absorption, Ind. Eng. Chem., 43, 1460–1467, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50498a055, 1951.
Deike, L. and Melville, W. K.: Gas transfer by breaking waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 482–492, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL078758, 2018.
Dugan, H. A., Woolway, R. I., Santoso, A. B., Corman, J. R., Jaimes, A., Nodine, E. R., Patil, V. P., Zwart, J. A., Brentrup, J. A., Hetherington, A. L., Oliver, S. K., Read, J. S., Winters, K. M., Hanson, P. C., Read, E. K., Winslow, L. A., and Weathers, K. C.: Consequences of gas flux model choice on the interpretation of metabolic balance across 15 lakes, Inland Waters, 6, 581–592, https://doi.org/10.1080/IW-6.4.836, 2016.
Engel, F., Farrell, K. J., McCullough, I. M., Scordo, F., Denfeld, B. A., Dugan, H. A., de Eyto, E., Hanson, P. C., McClure, R. P., Nõges, P., Nõges, T., Ryder, E., Weathers, K. C., and Weyhenmeyer, G. A.: A lake classification concept for a more accurate global estimate of the dissolved inorganic carbon export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters, Sci. Nat.-Heidelberg, 105, 25, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-018-1547-z, 2018.
Erkkilä, K.-M., Ojala, A., Bastviken, D., Biermann, T., Heiskanen, J. J., Lindroth, A., Peltola, O., Rantakari, M., Vesala, T., and Mammarella, I.: Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes over a lake: comparison between eddy covariance, floating chambers and boundary layer method, Biogeosciences, 15, 429–445, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-429-2018, 2018.
Esters, L., Landwehr, S., Sutherland, G., Bell, T. G., Christensen, K. H., Saltzman, E. S., Miller, S. D., and Ward, B.: Parameterizing air-sea gas transfer velocity with dissipation: Dissipation-based k-parametrization, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 122, 3041–3056. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC012088, 2017.
Esters, L., Rutgersson, A., Nilsson, E., and Sahlée, E.: Non-local impacts on eddy-covariance air-lake CO2 fluxes, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 178, 283–300, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-020-00565-2, 2021.
Eugster, W., Kling, G. W., Jonas, T., McFadden, J. P., Wüest, A., MacIntyre, S., and Chapin, F. S.: CO2 exchange between air and water in an Artic Alaskan and midlatitude Swiss lake: Importance of convective mixing, J. Geophys. Res., 108, D12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002653, 2003.
Fairall, C. W., Yang, M., Bariteau, L., Edson, J. B., Helmig, D., McGillis, W., Pezoa, S., Hare, J. E., Huebert, B., and Blomquist, B.: Implementation of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment flux algorithm with CO2, dimethyl sulfide, and O3, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C00F09, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006884, 2011.
Finlay, K., Vogt, R. J., Simpson, G. L., and Leavitt, P. R.: Seasonality of pCO2 in a hard-water lake of the northern Great Plains: The legacy effects of climate and limnological conditions over 36 years, Limnol. Oceanogr., 64, 118–129, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11113, 2019.
Frost, T. and Upstill-Goddard, R. C.: Meteorological controls of gas exchange at a small English lake, Limnol. Oceanogr., 47, 1165–1174, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2002.47.4.1165, 2002.
Guérin, F., Abril, G., Serça, D., Delon, C., Richard, S., Delmas, R., Tremblay, A., and Varfalvy, L.: Gas transfer velocities of CO2 and CH4 in a tropical reservoir and its river downstream, J. Marine Syst., 66, 161–172, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2006.03.019, 2007.
Hasselmann K., Barnett T. P., Bouws, E., Carlson, H, Cartwright D. E., Enke, K., Ewing, J. A., Gienapp, H., Hasselmann, D. E., Kruseman, P., Meerburg, A., Müller, P., Olbers, D. J., Richter, K., Sell, W., and Walden, H.: Measurements of wind-wave growth and swell decay during the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JON- SWAP), Dtsch. Hydrog. Z. Suppl. A, 8, 1–95, 1973.
Heiskanen, J. J., Mammarella, I., Haapanala, S., Pumpanen, J., Vesala, T., MacIntyre, S., and Ojala, A.: Effects of cooling and internal wave motions on gas transfer coefficients in a boreal lake, Tellus B, 66, 22827, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v66.22827, 2014.
Hubertz, J. M., Driver, D. B., and Reinhard, R. D.: Wind waves on the Great Lakes: A 32 year hindcast, J. Coastal Res., 7, 945–967, 1991.
Huotari, J., Ojala, A., Peltomaa, E., Nordbo, A., Launiainen, S., Pumpanen, J., Rasilo, T., Hari, P., and Vesala, T.: Long-term direct CO2 flux measurements over a boreal lake: Five years of eddy covariance data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18401, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048753, 2011.
Karlsson, J., Giesler, R., Persson, J., and Lundin, E.: High emission of carbon dioxide and methane during ice thaw in high latitude lakes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1123–1127, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50152, 2013.
Katul, G. and Liu, H.: Multiple mechanisms generate a universal scaling with dissipation for the air–water gas transfer velocity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 1892–1898, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL072256, 2017.
Katul, G., Mammarella, I., Grönholm, T., and Vesala, T.: A structure function model recovers the many formulations for air–water gas transfer velocity, Water Resour. Res., 54, 5905–5920, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018WR022731, 2018.
Keeling, R. F., Najjar, R. P., Bender, M. L., and Tans, P. P.: What atmospheric oxygen measurements can tell us about the global carbon cycle, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 7, 37–67, https://doi.org/10.1029/92GB02733, 1993.
Klaus, M. and Vachon, D.: Challenges of predicting gas transfer velocity from wind measurements over global lakes, Aquat. Sci., 82, 53, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00027-020-00729-9, 2020.
Lamont, J. C. and Scott, D. S.: An eddy cell model of mass transfer into the surface of a turbulent liquid, AIChE J., 16, 513–519, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690160403, 1970.
Lombardo, C. P. and Gregg, M. C.: Similarity scaling of viscous and thermal dissipation in a convecting surface boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 6273–6284, https://doi.org/10.1029/jc094ic05p06273, 1989.
Lorke, A. and Peeters, F.: Toward a unified scaling relation for interfacial fluxes, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 955–961, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO2903.1, 2006.
Maberly, S. C., Barker, P. A., Stott, A. W., and De Ville, M. M.: Catchment productivity controls CO2 emissions from lakes, Nat. Clim. Change, 3, 391–394, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1748, 2013.
MacIntyre, S., Eugster, W., and Kling, G. W.: The critical importance of buoyancy flux for gas flux across the air–water interface, in: Geophysical Monograph Series, edited by: Donelan, M. A., Drennan, W. M., Saltzman, E. S., and Wanninkhof, R., American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, https://doi.org/10.1029/GM127p0135, pp. 135–139, 2001.
MacIntyre, S., Jonsson, A., Jansson, M., Aberg, J., Turney, D. E., and Miller, S. D.: Buoyancy flux, turbulence, and the gas transfer coefficient in a stratified lake: Turbulence and gas evasion in lakes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24604, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044164, 2010.
Mammarella, I., Nordbo, A., Rannik, Ü., Haapanala, S., Levula, J., Laakso, H., Ojala, A., Peltola, O., Heiskanen, J., Pumpanen, J., and Vesala, T.: Carbon dioxide and energy fluxes over a small boreal lake in Southern Finland: CO2 and Energy Fluxes Over Lake, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 120, 1296–1314, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JG002873, 2015.
Perga, M.-E., Maberly, S. C., Jenny, J.-P., Alric, B., Pignol, C., and Naffrechoux, E.: A century of human-driven changes in the carbon dioxide concentration of lakes: 150 years of human impacts on lakes CO2, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 30, 93–104, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GB005286, 2016.
Perolo, P.: CO2 flux measurements in Lake Geneva, Zenodo [dataset], https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5679883, 2021.
Raymond, P. A., Hartmann, J., Lauerwald, R., Sobek, S., McDonald, C., Hoover, M., Butman, D., Striegl, R., Mayorga, E., Humborg, C., Kortelainen, P., Dürr, H., Meybeck, M., Ciais, P., and Guth, P.: Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters, Nature, 503, 355–359, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12760, 2013.
Read, J. S., Hamilton, D. P., Desai, A. R., Rose, K. C., MacIntyre, S., Lenters, J. D., Smyth, R. L., Hanson, P. C., Cole, J. J., Staehr, P. A., Rusak, J. A., Pierson, D. C., Brookes, J. D., Laas, A., and Wu, C. H.: Lake-size dependency of wind shear and convection as controls on gas exchange: Lake-size dependency of u∗ and w∗, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L09405, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051886, 2012.
Reed, D. E., Dugan, H. A., Flannery, A. L., and Desai, A. R.: Carbon sink and source dynamics of a eutrophic deep lake using multiple flux observations over multiple years: Carbon sink and source dynamics, Limnol. Oceanogr. Lett., 3, 285–292, https://doi.org/10.1002/lol2.10075, 2018.
Reichl, B. G. and Deike, L.: Contribution of sea-state dependent bubbles to air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, L087267, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087267, 2020.
Rimet, F., Anneville, O., Barbet, D., Chardon, C., Crépin, L., Domaizon, I., and Monet, G.: The Observatory on LAkes (OLA) database: Sixty years of environmental data accessible to the public, J. Limnol., 78, 164–178. https://doi.org/10.4081/jlimnol.2020.1944, 2020.
Risk, D., Nickerson, N., Creelman, C., McArthur, G., and Owens, J.: Forced Diffusion soil flux: A new technique for continuous monitoring of soil gas efflux, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 151, 1622–1631, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.06.020, 2011.
Russell, T. W. F. and Denn, M. M.: Introduction to chemical engineering analysis, Wiley, New York, USA, 1972.
Schilder, J., Bastviken, D., van Hardenbroek, M., Kankaala, P., Rinta, P., Stötter, T., and Heiri, O.: Spatial heterogeneity and lake morphology affect diffusive greenhouse gas emission estimates of lakes: Spatial heterogeneity of diffusive flux, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5752–5756, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL057669, 2013.
Schubert, M., Paschke, A., Lieberman, E., and Burnett, W. C.: Air–Water Partitioning of 222Rn and its Dependence on Water Temperature and Salinity, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 3905–3911, https://doi.org/10.1021/es204680n, 2012.
Simon A.: Turbulent mixing in the surface boundary layer of lakes, PhD thesis no. 12,272, Swiss Fed. Inst. Technol. (ETH), Zurich, 1997.
Soloviev, A. and Lukas, R.: The Near-Surface Layer of the Ocean: Structure, Dynamics, and Applications, Springer, Dordrecht, NL, 572 pp., https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7621-0, 2006.
Soloviev, A. and Schlüssel P.: Parametrization of the cool skin of the ocean and of the air-ocean gas transfer on the basis of modeling surface renewal, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 1339–1346, 1994.
Soloviev, A., Donelan, M., Graber, H., Haus, B., and Schlüssel, P.: An approach to estimation of near-surface turbulence and CO2 transfer velocity from remote sensing data, J. Marine Syst., 66, 182–194, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2006.03.023, 2007.
Stumm, W. and Morgan, J. J.: Aquatic Chemistry: An introduction emphasizing chemical equilibria in natural waters, 2nd edn., John Wiley and Sons Ltd, New York, USA, 1981.
Tedford, E. W., MacIntyre, S., Miller, S. D., and Czikowsky, M. J.: Similarity scaling of turbulence in a temperate lake during fall cooling, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 119, 4689–4713, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010135, 2014.
Terray, E. A., Donelan, M. A., Agrawal, Y. C., Drennan, W. M., Kahma, K. K., Williams III, A. J., Hwang, P. A., and Kitaigorodkii, S. A.: Estimates of kinetic energy dissipation under breaking waves, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 792–807, 1996.
Toba, Y.: Local balance in the air-sea boundary processes, J. Oceanogr., 28, 109–120, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02109772, 1972.
Toba, Y.: Stochastic form of the growth of wind waves in a single-parameter representation with physical implications, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 8, 494–507, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1978)008<0494:SFOTGO>2.0.CO;2, 1978.
Tranvik, L. J., Downing, J. A., Cotner, J. B., Loiselle, S. A., Striegl, R. G., Ballatore, T. J., Dillon, P., Finlay, K., Fortino, K., Knoll, L. B., Kortelainen, P. L., Kutser, T., Larsen, Soren., Laurion, I., Leech, D. M., McCallister, S. L., McKnight, D. M., Melack, J. M., Overholt, E., Porter, J. A., Prairie, Y., Renwick, W. H., Roland, F., Sherman, B. S., Schindler, D. W., Sobek, S., Tremblay, A., Vanni, M. J., Verschoor, A. M., von Wachenfeldt, E., and Weyhenmeyer, G. A.: Lakes and reservoirs as regulators of carbon cycling and climate, Limnol. Oceanogr., 54, 2298–2314, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2009.54.6_part_2.2298, 2009.
Vachon, D. and Prairie, Y. T.: The ecosystem size and shape dependence of gas transfer velocity versus wind speed relationships in lakes, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 70, 1757–1764, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0241, 2013.
Vachon, D., Prairie, Y. T., and Cole, J. J.: The relationship between near-surface turbulence and gas transfer velocity in freshwater systems and its implications for floating chamber measurements of gas exchange, Limnol. Oceanogr., 55, 1723–1732, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2010.55.4.1723, 2010.
Vesala, T., Huotari, J., Rannik, Ü., Suni, T., Smolander, S., Sogachev, A., Launiainen, S., and Ojala, A.: Eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange and latent and sensible heat fluxes over a boreal lake for a full open-water period, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D11101, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006365, 2006.
Wanninkhof, R.: Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 7373–7382, https://doi.org/10.1029/92JC00188, 1992.
Wanninkhof, R. and Knox, M.: Chemical enhancement of CO2 exchange in natural waters, Limnol. Oceanogr., 41, 689–697, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1996.41.4.0689, 1996.
Winslow, L. A., Zwart, J. A., Batt, R. D., Dugan, H. A., Woolway, R. I., Corman, J. R., Hanson, P. C., and Read, J. S.: LakeMetabolizer: An R package for estimating lake metabolism from free-water oxygen using diverse statistical models, Inland Waters, 6, 622–636, https://doi.org/10.1080/IW-6.4.883, 2016.
Woolf, D. K.: Bubbles and their role in gas exchange, in: The Sea Surface and Global Change, edited by: Liss, P. S. and Duce, R. A., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511525025.007, pp. 173–206, 1997.
Woolf, D. K.: Parametrization of gas transfer velocities and sea-state-dependent wave breaking, Tellus B, 57, 87–94, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v57i2.16783, 2005.
Wüest, A. and Lorke, A.: Small-scale hydrodynamics in lakes, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 35, 373–412, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fluid.35.101101.161220, 2003.
Wüest, A., Bouffard, D., Guillard, J., Ibelings, B. W., Lavanchy, S., Perga, M.-E., and Pasche, N.: LéXPLORE: A floating laboratory on Lake Geneva offering unique research opportunities, Wires Water, 8, e1544, https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1544, 2021.
Wyngaard, J. C. and Coté O. R.: The budgets of turbulent kinetic energy and temperature variance in the atmospheric surface layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 190–201, 1971.
Zappa, C. J., McGillis, W. R., Raymond, P. A., Edson, J. B., Hintsa, E. J., Zemmelink, H. J., Dacey, J. W. H., and Ho, D. T.: Environmental turbulent mixing controls on air–water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L10601, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028790, 2007.
Zimmermann, M., Mayr, M. J., Bouffard, D., Eugster, W., Steinsberger, T., Wehrli, B., Brand, A., and Bürgmann, H.: Lake overturn as a key driver for methan oxidation, CSH. Lab. bioRXiv, https://doi.org/10.1101/689182, 2019.
Wind blowing over the ocean creates waves that, by increasing the level of turbulence, promote gas exchange at the air–water interface. In this study, for the first time, we measured enhanced gas exchanges by wind-induced waves at the surface of a large lake. We adapted an ocean-based model to account for the effect of surface waves on gas exchange in lakes. We finally show that intense wind events with surface waves contribute disproportionately to the annual CO2 gas flux in a large lake.
Wind blowing over the ocean creates waves that, by increasing the level of turbulence, promote...