Articles | Volume 9, issue 3
Research article
27 Aug 2018
Research article |  | 27 Aug 2018

Causal dependences between the coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamics over the tropical Pacific, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic

Stéphane Vannitsem and Pierre Ekelmans

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Cited articles

Alexander, M. A., Bladé, I., Newman, M., Lanzante, J. R., Lau, N.-C., and Scott, J. D.: The atmospheric bridge: the influence of ENSO teleconnections on air-sea interaction over the global oceans, J. Climate, 15, 2205–2231, 2002. a, b
Balmaseda, M. A., Morgensen, K., and Weaver, A. T.: Evaluation of the ECMWF ocean reanalysis system ORA4S, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 139, 1132–1161, 2013. a
BozorgMagham, A. E., Motesharrei, S., Penny, S. G., and Kalnay, E.: Causality analysis: Indentifying the leading element in a coupled dynamical system, PLoS ONE, 10, e0131226,, 2015. a
Brönnimann, S.: Impact of El-Nino-Southern Oscillation on European Climate, Rev. Geophys., 45, RG3003,, 2007. a, b, c
Casdagli, M.: Chaos and deterministic versus stochastic nonlinear modeling, Santa Fee Institute Working Paper, 1991-07-029, Santa Fe Institute, New Mexico, USA, 35 pp., 1991. a, b, c
Short summary
The El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon is a slow dynamics present in the coupled ocean–atmosphere tropical Pacific system which has important teleconnections with the northern extratropics. These teleconnections are usually believed to be the source of an enhanced predictability in the northern extratropics at seasonal to decadal timescales. This question is challenged by investigating the causality between these regions using an advanced technique known as convergent cross mapping.
Final-revised paper