Articles | Volume 7, issue 3
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 717–734, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-7-717-2016
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 717–734, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-7-717-2016

Research article 30 Aug 2016

Research article | 30 Aug 2016

Coherence among the Northern Hemisphere land, cryosphere, and ocean responses to natural variability and anthropogenic forcing during the satellite era

Alemu Gonsamo et al.

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Using 3 decades of observational satellite and field data, we find that long-term changes in sea ice and sea level, plant phenology, and surface temperature are coherent with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration and other global greenhouse gases. During the same period, natural causes of climate change should only have a net cooling long-term effect, suggesting the observed coherent pattern of changes across Earth's biological and physical systems could only be due to human activities.
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