Articles | Volume 8, issue 4
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
The potential of using remote sensing data to estimate air–sea CO2 exchange in the Baltic Sea
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
AGO-GHER-MARE, University of Liège, Allée du Six Aout, 17, Sart Tilman, Liège 4000, Belgium
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Sindu Raj Parampil
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Anastase Alexandre Charantonis
École nationale supérieure d'informatique pour l'industrie et l'entreprise, Évry, France
No articles found.
Lucía Gutiérrez-Loza, Erik Nilsson, Marcus B. Wallin, Erik Sahlée, and Anna Rutgersson
Biogeosciences, 19, 5645–5665,Short summary
The exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere is an essential aspect of the global carbon cycle and is highly relevant for the Earth's climate. In this study, we used 9 years of in situ measurements to evaluate the temporal variability in the air–sea CO2 fluxes in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, using this long record, we assessed the effect of atmospheric and water-side mechanisms controlling the efficiency of the air–sea CO2 exchange under different wind-speed conditions.
H. E. Markus Meier, Madline Kniebusch, Christian Dieterich, Matthias Gröger, Eduardo Zorita, Ragnar Elmgren, Kai Myrberg, Markus P. Ahola, Alena Bartosova, Erik Bonsdorff, Florian Börgel, Rene Capell, Ida Carlén, Thomas Carlund, Jacob Carstensen, Ole B. Christensen, Volker Dierschke, Claudia Frauen, Morten Frederiksen, Elie Gaget, Anders Galatius, Jari J. Haapala, Antti Halkka, Gustaf Hugelius, Birgit Hünicke, Jaak Jaagus, Mart Jüssi, Jukka Käyhkö, Nina Kirchner, Erik Kjellström, Karol Kulinski, Andreas Lehmann, Göran Lindström, Wilhelm May, Paul A. Miller, Volker Mohrholz, Bärbel Müller-Karulis, Diego Pavón-Jordán, Markus Quante, Marcus Reckermann, Anna Rutgersson, Oleg P. Savchuk, Martin Stendel, Laura Tuomi, Markku Viitasalo, Ralf Weisse, and Wenyan Zhang
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 457–593,Short summary
Based on the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports of this thematic issue in Earth System Dynamics and recent peer-reviewed literature, current knowledge about the effects of global warming on past and future changes in the climate of the Baltic Sea region is summarised and assessed. The study is an update of the Second Assessment of Climate Change (BACC II) published in 2015 and focuses on the atmosphere, land, cryosphere, ocean, sediments, and the terrestrial and marine biosphere.
Anna Rutgersson, Erik Kjellström, Jari Haapala, Martin Stendel, Irina Danilovich, Martin Drews, Kirsti Jylhä, Pentti Kujala, Xiaoli Guo Larsén, Kirsten Halsnæs, Ilari Lehtonen, Anna Luomaranta, Erik Nilsson, Taru Olsson, Jani Särkkä, Laura Tuomi, and Norbert Wasmund
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 251–301,Short summary
A natural hazard is a naturally occurring extreme event with a negative effect on people, society, or the environment; major events in the study area include wind storms, extreme waves, high and low sea level, ice ridging, heavy precipitation, sea-effect snowfall, river floods, heat waves, ice seasons, and drought. In the future, an increase in sea level, extreme precipitation, heat waves, and phytoplankton blooms is expected, and a decrease in cold spells and severe ice winters is anticipated.
Matthias Gröger, Christian Dieterich, Jari Haapala, Ha Thi Minh Ho-Hagemann, Stefan Hagemann, Jaromir Jakacki, Wilhelm May, H. E. Markus Meier, Paul A. Miller, Anna Rutgersson, and Lichuan Wu
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 939–973,Short summary
Regional climate studies are typically pursued by single Earth system component models (e.g., ocean models and atmosphere models). These models are driven by prescribed data which hamper the simulation of feedbacks between Earth system components. To overcome this, models were developed that interactively couple model components and allow an adequate simulation of Earth system interactions important for climate. This article reviews recent developments of such models for the Baltic Sea region.
Jens Daniel Müller, Bernd Schneider, Ulf Gräwe, Peer Fietzek, Marcus Bo Wallin, Anna Rutgersson, Norbert Wasmund, Siegfried Krüger, and Gregor Rehder
Biogeosciences, 18, 4889–4917,Short summary
Based on profiling pCO2 measurements from a field campaign, we quantify the biomass production of a cyanobacteria bloom in the Baltic Sea, the export of which would foster deep water deoxygenation. We further demonstrate how this biomass production can be accurately reconstructed from long-term surface measurements made on cargo vessels in combination with modelled temperature profiles. This approach enables a better understanding of a severe concern for the Baltic’s good environmental status.
Taru Olsson, Anna Luomaranta, Kirsti Jylhä, Julia Jeworrek, Tuuli Perttula, Christian Dieterich, Lichuan Wu, Anna Rutgersson, and Antti Mäkelä
Adv. Sci. Res., 17, 87–104,Short summary
Statistics of the frequency and intensity of snow bands affecting the Finnish coast during years 2000–2010 was conducted. A set of criteria for meteorological variables favoring the formation of the snow bands were applied to regional climate model (RCA4) data. We found on average three days per year with favorable conditions for coastal sea-effect snowfall. The heaviest convective snowfall events were detected most frequently over the southern coastline.
Björn Claremar, Karin Haglund, and Anna Rutgersson
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 901–919,Short summary
Shipping is the most cost-effective option for the global transport of goods, and over 90 % of world trade is carried by sea. The shipping sector, however, contributes to emissions of pollutants into the air and water. Estimates of deposition and near-surface concentrations of sulfur, nitrogen, and particulate matter originating from shipping in the Baltic Sea region have been developed for present conditions concerning traffic intensity and fuel as well as for future scenarios until 2050.
Julia Jeworrek, Lichuan Wu, Christian Dieterich, and Anna Rutgersson
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 163–175,Short summary
Convective snow bands develop in response to a cold air outbreak from the continent over an open water surface. In the Baltic Sea region these cause intense snowfall and can cause serious problems for traffic, infrastructure and other important establishments of society. The conditions for these events to occur were characterized and the potential of using a regional modelling system was evaluated. The modelling system was used to develop statistics of these events to occur in time and space.
Tito Maldonado, Anna Rutgersson, Eric Alfaro, Jorge Amador, and Björn Claremar
Adv. Geosci., 42, 35–50,Short summary
We studied the relationship between the midsummer drought (MSD) in Central America, and the sea surface temperatures (SST) of the neighbouring ocean in interannual scales. Besides, the motivation of this study is also to provide a systematic method for forecasting the MSD period. We found that the intensity and the magnitude of the MSD shown a strong association with the contrast in the surface temperatures between the eastern tropical Pacific, and the tropical north Atlantic.
G. Parard, A. A. Charantonis, and A. Rutgerson
Biogeosciences, 12, 3369–3384,Short summary
In this paper, we used combines two existing methods (i.e. self-organizing maps and multiple linear regression) to estimate the ocean surface partial pressure of CO2 in the Baltic Sea from the remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, coloured dissolved organic matter, net primary production, and mixed-layer depth. The outputs of this research have a horizontal resolution of 4km and cover the 1998–2011 period. These outputs give a monthly map of the Baltic Sea.
E. Podgrajsek, E. Sahlée, D. Bastviken, J. Holst, A. Lindroth, L. Tranvik, and A. Rutgersson
Biogeosciences, 11, 4225–4233,
Related subject area
Earth system interactions with the biosphere: biogeochemical cyclesHow does the phytoplankton–light feedback affect the marine N2O inventory?Time-varying changes and uncertainties in the CMIP6 ocean carbon sink from global to local scaleInterannual global carbon cycle variations linked to atmospheric circulation variabilityContrasting projections of the ENSO-driven CO2 flux variability in the equatorial Pacific under high-warming scenarioDivergent historical GPP trends among state-of-the-art multi-model simulations and satellite-based productsIndian Ocean marine biogeochemical variability and its feedback on simulated South Asia climateImpact of bioenergy crop expansion on climate–carbon cycle feedbacks in overshoot scenariosBiogeochemical functioning of the Baltic SeaProcess-based analysis of terrestrial carbon flux predictabilityParameter uncertainty dominates C-cycle forecast errors over most of Brazil for the 21st centuryResolving ecological feedbacks on the ocean carbon sink in Earth system modelsDisequilibrium of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 budget caused by disturbance-induced emissions and non-CO2 carbon export flows: a global model assessmentOcean phosphorus inventory: large uncertainties in future projections on millennial timescales and their consequences for ocean deoxygenationEvaluation of terrestrial pan-Arctic carbon cycling using a data-assimilation systemHazards of decreasing marine oxygen: the near-term and millennial-scale benefits of meeting the Paris climate targetsThe biomass burning contribution to climate–carbon-cycle feedbackEarth system model simulations show different feedback strengths of the terrestrial carbon cycle under glacial and interglacial conditionsReliability ensemble averaging of 21st century projections of terrestrial net primary productivity reduces global and regional uncertaintiesNitrogen leaching from natural ecosystems under global change: a modelling studyStructure and functioning of the acid–base system in the Baltic SeaEffects of the 2014 major Baltic inflow on methane and nitrous oxide dynamics in the water column of the central Baltic SeaEvapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon BasinSeasonal effects of irrigation on land–atmosphere latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes in semiarid basinDivergent predictions of carbon storage between two global land models: attribution of the causes through traceability analysisEffect of various climate databases on the results of dendroclimatic analysisThe Southern Ocean as a constraint to reduce uncertainty in future ocean carbon sinksComment on: "Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: a critique" by Edixhoven et al. (2014) – clarifying comments and thoughts on key conceptions, conclusions and interpretation to allow for sustainable actionClimate and carbon cycle dynamics in a CESM simulation from 850 to 2100 CEThe ocean carbon sink – impacts, vulnerabilities and challengesRecent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: a critiqueThe sensitivity of carbon turnover in the Community Land Model to modified assumptions about soil processesComment on "Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation" by Becker et al. (2013)Dynamical and biogeochemical control on the decadal variability of ocean carbon fluxesSoil temperature response to 21st century global warming: the role of and some implications for peat carbon in thawing permafrost soils in North AmericaThermodynamic dissipation theory for the origin of life
Sarah Berthet, Julien Jouanno, Roland Séférian, Marion Gehlen, and William Llovel
Earth Syst. Dynam., 14, 399–412,Short summary
Phytoplankton absorbs the solar radiation entering the ocean surface and contributes to keeping the associated energy in surface waters. This natural effect is either not represented in the ocean component of climate models or its representation is simplified. An incomplete representation of this biophysical interaction affects the way climate models simulate ocean warming, which leads to uncertainties in projections of oceanic emissions of an important greenhouse gas (nitrous oxide).
Parsa Gooya, Neil C. Swart, and Roberta C. Hamme
Earth Syst. Dynam., 14, 383–398,Short summary
We report on the ocean carbon sink and sources of uptake uncertainty from the latest version of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. We diagnose the highly active regions for the sink and show how knowledge about historical regions of uptake will provide information about future regions of uptake change and uncertainty. We evaluate the dependence of uncertainty on the location and integration scale. Our results help make useful suggestions for both modeling and observational communities.
Na Li, Sebastian Sippel, Alexander J. Winkler, Miguel D. Mahecha, Markus Reichstein, and Ana Bastos
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1505–1533,Short summary
Quantifying the imprint of large-scale atmospheric circulation dynamics and associated carbon cycle responses is key to improving our understanding of carbon cycle dynamics. Using a statistical model that relies on spatiotemporal sea level pressure as a proxy for large-scale atmospheric circulation, we quantify the fraction of interannual variability in atmospheric CO2 growth rate and the land CO2 sink that are driven by atmospheric circulation variability.
Pradeebane Vaittinada Ayar, Laurent Bopp, Jim R. Christian, Tatiana Ilyina, John P. Krasting, Roland Séférian, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Michio Watanabe, Andrew Yool, and Jerry Tjiputra
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1097–1118,Short summary
The El Niño–Southern Oscillation is the main driver for the natural variability of global atmospheric CO2. It modulates the CO2 fluxes in the tropical Pacific with anomalous CO2 influx during El Niño and outflux during La Niña. This relationship is projected to reverse by half of Earth system models studied here under the business-as-usual scenario. This study shows models that simulate a positive bias in surface carbonate concentrations simulate a shift in the ENSO–CO2 flux relationship.
Ruqi Yang, Jun Wang, Ning Zeng, Stephen Sitch, Wenhan Tang, Matthew Joseph McGrath, Qixiang Cai, Di Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Hanqin Tian, Atul K. Jain, and Pengfei Han
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 833–849,Short summary
We comprehensively investigate historical GPP trends based on five kinds of GPP datasets and analyze the causes for any discrepancies among them. Results show contrasting behaviors between modeled and satellite-based GPP trends, and their inconsistencies are likely caused by the contrasting performance between satellite-derived and modeled leaf area index (LAI). Thus, the uncertainty in satellite-based GPP induced by LAI undermines its role in assessing the performance of DGVM simulations.
Dmitry V. Sein, Anton Y. Dvornikov, Stanislav D. Martyanov, William Cabos, Vladimir A. Ryabchenko, Matthias Gröger, Daniela Jacob, Alok Kumar Mishra, and Pankaj Kumar
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 809–831,Short summary
The effect of the marine biogeochemical variability upon the South Asian regional climate has been investigated. In the experiment where its full impact is activated, the average sea surface temperature is lower over most of the ocean. When the biogeochemical coupling is included, the main impacts include the enhanced phytoplankton primary production, a shallower thermocline, decreased SST and water temperature in subsurface layers.
Irina Melnikova, Olivier Boucher, Patricia Cadule, Katsumasa Tanaka, Thomas Gasser, Tomohiro Hajima, Yann Quilcaille, Hideo Shiogama, Roland Séférian, Kaoru Tachiiri, Nicolas Vuichard, Tokuta Yokohata, and Philippe Ciais
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 779–794,Short summary
The deployment of bioenergy crops for capturing carbon from the atmosphere facilitates global warming mitigation via generating negative CO2 emissions. Here, we explored the consequences of large-scale energy crops deployment on the land carbon cycle. The land-use change for energy crops leads to carbon emissions and loss of future potential increase in carbon uptake by natural ecosystems. This impact should be taken into account by the modeling teams and accounted for in mitigation policies.
Karol Kuliński, Gregor Rehder, Eero Asmala, Alena Bartosova, Jacob Carstensen, Bo Gustafsson, Per O. J. Hall, Christoph Humborg, Tom Jilbert, Klaus Jürgens, H. E. Markus Meier, Bärbel Müller-Karulis, Michael Naumann, Jørgen E. Olesen, Oleg Savchuk, Andreas Schramm, Caroline P. Slomp, Mikhail Sofiev, Anna Sobek, Beata Szymczycha, and Emma Undeman
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 633–685,Short summary
The paper covers the aspects related to changes in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (C, N, P) external loads; their transformations in the coastal zone; changes in organic matter production (eutrophication) and remineralization (oxygen availability); and the role of sediments in burial and turnover of C, N, and P. Furthermore, this paper also focuses on changes in the marine CO2 system, the structure of the microbial community, and the role of contaminants for biogeochemical processes.
István Dunkl, Aaron Spring, Pierre Friedlingstein, and Victor Brovkin
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1413–1426,Short summary
The variability in atmospheric CO2 is largely controlled by terrestrial carbon fluxes. These land–atmosphere fluxes are predictable for around 2 years, but the mechanisms providing the predictability are not well understood. By decomposing the predictability of carbon fluxes into individual contributors we were able to explain the spatial and seasonal patterns and the interannual variability of CO2 flux predictability.
Thomas Luke Smallman, David Thomas Milodowski, Eráclito Sousa Neto, Gerbrand Koren, Jean Ometto, and Mathew Williams
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1191–1237,Short summary
Our study provides a novel assessment of model parameter, structure and climate change scenario uncertainty contribution to future predictions of the Brazilian terrestrial carbon stocks to 2100. We calibrated (2001–2017) five models of the terrestrial C cycle of varied structure. The calibrated models were then projected to 2100 under multiple climate change scenarios. Parameter uncertainty dominates overall uncertainty, being ~ 40 times that of either model structure or climate change scenario.
David I. Armstrong McKay, Sarah E. Cornell, Katherine Richardson, and Johan Rockström
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 797–818,Short summary
We use an Earth system model with two new ocean ecosystem features (plankton size traits and temperature-sensitive nutrient recycling) to revaluate the effect of climate change on sinking organic carbon (the
biological pump) and the ocean carbon sink. These features lead to contrary pump responses to warming, with a combined effect of a smaller sink despite a more resilient pump. These results show the importance of including ecological dynamics in models for understanding climate feedbacks.
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 685–709,Short summary
Various minor carbon flows such as trace gas emissions, disturbance-induced emissions, and subsurface exports can affect the carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems in complicated ways. This study assessed how much these minor flows influence the carbon budget using a process-based model. It was found that the minor flows, though small in magnitude, could significantly affect net carbon budget at as much strengths as major flows, implying their long-term importance in Earth's climate system.
Tronje P. Kemena, Angela Landolfi, Andreas Oschlies, Klaus Wallmann, and Andrew W. Dale
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 539–553,Short summary
Oceanic deoxygenation is driven by climate change in several areas of the global ocean. Measurements indicate that ocean volumes with very low oxygen levels expand, with consequences for marine organisms and fishery. We found climate-change-driven phosphorus (P) input in the ocean is hereby an important driver for deoxygenation on longer timescales with effects in the next millennia.
Efrén López-Blanco, Jean-François Exbrayat, Magnus Lund, Torben R. Christensen, Mikkel P. Tamstorf, Darren Slevin, Gustaf Hugelius, Anthony A. Bloom, and Mathew Williams
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 233–255,Short summary
The terrestrial CO2 exchange in Arctic ecosystems plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and is particularly sensitive to the ongoing warming experienced in recent years. To improve our understanding of the atmosphere–biosphere interplay, we evaluated the state of the terrestrial pan-Arctic carbon cycling using a promising data assimilation system in the first 15 years of the 21st century. This is crucial when it comes to making predictions about the future state of the carbon cycle.
Gianna Battaglia and Fortunat Joos
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 797–816,Short summary
Human-caused, climate change hazards in the ocean continue to aggravate over a very long time. For business as usual, we project the ocean oxygen content to decrease by 40 % over the next thousand years. This would likely have severe consequences for marine life. Global warming and oxygen loss are linked, and meeting the warming target of the Paris Climate Agreement effectively limits related marine hazards. Developments over many thousands of years should be considered to assess marine risks.
Sandy P. Harrison, Patrick J. Bartlein, Victor Brovkin, Sander Houweling, Silvia Kloster, and I. Colin Prentice
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 663–677,Short summary
Temperature affects fire occurrence and severity. Warming will increase fire-related carbon emissions and thus atmospheric CO2. The size of this feedback is not known. We use charcoal records to estimate pre-industrial fire emissions and a simple land–biosphere model to quantify the feedback. We infer a feedback strength of 5.6 3.2 ppm CO2 per degree of warming and a gain of 0.09 ± 0.05 for a climate sensitivity of 2.8 K. Thus, fire feedback is a large part of the climate–carbon-cycle feedback.
Markus Adloff, Christian H. Reick, and Martin Claussen
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 413–425,Short summary
Computer simulations show that during an ice age a strong atmospheric CO2 increase would have resulted in stronger carbon uptake of the continents than today. Causes are the larger potential of glacial vegetation to increase its photosynthetic efficiency under increasing CO2 and the smaller amount of carbon in extratropical soils during an ice age that can be released under greenhouse warming. Hence, for different climates the Earth system is differently sensitive to carbon cycle perturbations.
Jean-François Exbrayat, A. Anthony Bloom, Pete Falloon, Akihiko Ito, T. Luke Smallman, and Mathew Williams
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 153–165,Short summary
We use global observations of current terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) to constrain the uncertainty in large ensemble 21st century projections of NPP under a "business as usual" scenario using a skill-based multi-model averaging technique. Our results show that this procedure helps greatly reduce the uncertainty in global projections of NPP. We also identify regions where uncertainties in models and observations remain too large to confidently conclude a sign of the change of NPP.
Maarten C. Braakhekke, Karin T. Rebel, Stefan C. Dekker, Benjamin Smith, Arthur H. W. Beusen, and Martin J. Wassen
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 1121–1139,Short summary
Nitrogen input in natural ecosystems usually has a positive effect on plant growth. However, too much N causes N leaching, which contributes to water pollution. Using a global model we estimated that N leaching from natural lands has increased by 73 % during the 20th century, mainly due to rising N deposition from the atmosphere caused by emissions from fossil fuels and agriculture. Climate change and increasing CO2 concentration had positive and negative effects (respectively) on N leaching.
Karol Kuliński, Bernd Schneider, Beata Szymczycha, and Marcin Stokowski
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 1107–1120,Short summary
This review describes the general knowledge of the marine acid–base system as well as the peculiarities identified and reported for the Baltic Sea specifically. We discuss issues such as dissociation constants in the brackish water, the structure of the total alkalinity in the Baltic Sea, long-term changes in total alkalinity, and the acid–base effects of biomass production and mineralization. We identify research gaps and specify bottlenecks concerning the Baltic Sea acid–base system.
Jukka-Pekka Myllykangas, Tom Jilbert, Gunnar Jakobs, Gregor Rehder, Jan Werner, and Susanna Hietanen
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 817–826,Short summary
The deep waters of the Baltic Sea host an expanding
dead zone, where low-oxygen conditions favour the natural production of two strong greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide. Oxygen is introduced into the deeps only during rare
salt pulses. We studied the effects of a recent salt pulse on Baltic greenhouse gas production. We found that where oxygen was introduced, methane was largely removed, while nitrous oxide production increased, indicating strong effects on greenhouse gas dynamics.
Eduardo Eiji Maeda, Xuanlong Ma, Fabien Hubert Wagner, Hyungjun Kim, Taikan Oki, Derek Eamus, and Alfredo Huete
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 439–454,Short summary
The Amazon River basin continuously transfers massive volumes of water from the land surface to the atmosphere, thereby having massive influence on global climate patterns. Nonetheless, the characteristics of ET across the Amazon basin, as well as the relative contribution of the multiple drivers to this process, are still uncertain. This study carries out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers across the Amazon Basin.
Yujin Zeng, Zhenghui Xie, and Shuang Liu
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 113–127,Short summary
Irrigation constitutes 70 % of human water consumption. In this study, using the improved CLM4.5 with an active crop model, two 1 km simulations investigating the effects of irrigation on latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes in the Heihe River basin in northwestern China were conducted using a high-quality irrigation dataset compiled from 1981 to 2013. The results revealed the key role of irrigation in the control of land–atmosphere water, energy, and carbon fluxes in semiarid basin.
Rashid Rafique, Jianyang Xia, Oleksandra Hararuk, Ghassem R. Asrar, Guoyong Leng, Yingping Wang, and Yiqi Luo
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 649–658,Short summary
Traceability analysis was used to diagnose the causes of differences in simulating ecosystem carbon storage capacity between two land models: CLMA-CASA and CABLE. Results showed that the simulated ecosystem carbon storage capacity is largely influenced by the photosynthesis parameterization, residence time and organic matter decomposition.
Roman Sitko, Jaroslav Vido, Jaroslav Škvarenina, Viliam Pichler, Ĺubomír Scheer, Jana Škvareninová, and Paulína Nalevanková
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 385–395,
A. Kessler and J. Tjiputra
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 295–312,Short summary
The uncertainty of ocean carbon uptake in ESMs is projected to grow 2-fold by the end of the 21st century. We found that models that take up anomalously low (high) CO2 in the Southern Ocean (SO) today project low (high) cumulative CO2 uptake in the 21st century; thus the SO can be used to constrain future global uptake uncertainty. Inter-model spread in the SO carbon sink arises from variations in the pCO2 seasonality, specifically bias in the simulated timing and amplitude of NPP and SST.
R. W. Scholz and F.-W. Wellmer
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 103–117,Short summary
The 2014 USGS data could decrease from 67 Gt phosphate rock (PR) reserves to 58.5 Gt marketable PR (PR-M) if data on PR-ore are transferred to PR-M. The 50 Gt PR-M estimate for Moroccan reserves is reasonable. Geoeconomics suggests that large parts of resources and geopotential become future reserves. As phosphate is essential for food production and reserve data alone are unsufficient for assessing long-run supply security, an international standing committee may assess future PR accessibility.
F. Lehner, F. Joos, C. C. Raible, J. Mignot, A. Born, K. M. Keller, and T. F. Stocker
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 411–434,Short summary
We present the first last-millennium simulation with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) including an interactive carbon cycle in both ocean and land component. Volcanic eruptions emerge as the strongest forcing factor for the preindustrial climate and carbon cycle. We estimate the climate-carbon-cycle feedback in CESM to be at the lower bounds of empirical estimates (1.3ppm/°C). The time of emergence for interannual global land and ocean carbon uptake rates are 1947 and 1877, respectively.
C. Heinze, S. Meyer, N. Goris, L. Anderson, R. Steinfeldt, N. Chang, C. Le Quéré, and D. C. E. Bakker
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 327–358,Short summary
Rapidly rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused by human actions over the past 250 years have raised cause for concern that changes in Earth’s climate system may progress at a much faster pace and larger extent than during the past 20,000 years. Questions that yet need to be answered are what the carbon uptake kinetics of the oceans will be in the future and how the increase in oceanic carbon inventory will affect its ecosystems. Major future ocean carbon research challenges are discussed.
J. D. Edixhoven, J. Gupta, and H. H. G. Savenije
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 491–507,Short summary
Phosphate rock is a finite resource required for fertilizer production. Following a debate over the PR depletion timeline, global PR reserves were recently increased 4-fold based mainly on a restatement of Moroccan reserves. We review whether this restatement is methodologically compatible with resource terminology used in major resource classifications, whether resource classification nomenclature is sufficiently understood in the literature, and whether the recent restatements are reliable.
B. Foereid, D. S. Ward, N. Mahowald, E. Paterson, and J. Lehmann
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 211–221,
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 41–42,
R. Séférian, L. Bopp, D. Swingedouw, and J. Servonnat
Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 109–127,
D. Wisser, S. Marchenko, J. Talbot, C. Treat, and S. Frolking
Earth Syst. Dynam., 2, 121–138,
Earth Syst. Dynam., 2, 37–51,
Algesten, G., Brydsten, L., Jonsson, P., Kortelainen, P., Löfgren, S., Rahm, L., Räike, A., Sobek, S., Tranvik, L., and Wikner, J.: Organic carbon budget for the Gulf of Bothnia, J. Marine Syst., 63, 155–161, 2006.
Alin, S. R., Feely, R. A., Dickson, A. G., Hernández-Ayón, J. M., Juranek, L. W., Ohman, M. D., and Goericke, R.: Robust empirical relationships for estimating the carbonate system in the southern California System and application to CalCOFI hydrographic cruise data (2005–2011), J. Geophys. Res, 117, C05033, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007511, 2012.
Arruda, R., Calil, P. H. R., Bianchi, A. A., Doney, S. C., Gruber, N., Lima, I., and Turi, G.: Air-sea CO2 fluxes and the controls on ocean surface pCO2 seasonal variability in the coastal and open-ocean southwestern Atlantic Ocean: a modeling study, Biogeosciences, 12, 5793–5809, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-5793-2015, 2015.
Backer, H. and Leppänen, J.-M. M.: The HELCOM system of a vision, strategic goals and ecological objectives: implementing an ecosystem approach to the management of human activities in the Baltic Sea, Aquat. Conserv., 18, 321–334, 2008.
Bentamy, A. and Croizé-Fillon, D.: Reprocessing Daily QuikSCAT Surface Wind Fields., Tech. rep., Ifremer, Brest, 2013.
Bergstrom, S.: River runoff to the Baltic Sea: 1950–1990, Ambio, 23, 280–287, 1994.
Borges, A. V. and Frankignoulle, M.: Distribution and air-water exchange of carbon dioxide in the Scheldt plume off the Belgian coast, Biogeochemistry, 59, 41–67, 2002.
Borges, A. V., Djenidi, S., Lacroix, G., Théate, J., Delille, B., and Frankignoulle, M.: Atmospheric CO2 flux from mangrove surrounding waters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL017143, 2003.
Bourgeois, T., Orr, J. C., Resplandy, L., Terhaar, J., Ethé, C., Gehlen, M., and Bopp, L.: Coastal-ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon, Biogeosciences, 13, 4167–4185, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-4167-2016, 2016.
Cai, W.-J., Wang, Z. A., and Wang, Y.: The role of marsh-dominated heterotrophic continental margins in transport of CO2 between the atmosphere, the land-sea interface and the ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL017633, 2003.
Canadell, J. G.: Global Carbon Project: Science framework and Implementation, edited by: Canadell, J. G., Dickson, R., Hibbard, K., Raupach, M., and Young, O., Earth System Science Partnership (IGBP, IHDP, WCRP, DIVERSITAS) Report No. 1, Global Carbon Project Report No. 1, 69 pp., Canberra, 2003.
Chen, C.-T. A. and Wang, S.-L.: Carbon, alkalinity and nutrient budgets on the East China Sea continental shelf, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 104, 20675–20686, 1999.
Chen, C.-T. A., Liu, K.-K. K., and Macdonald, R.: Continental margin exchanges, in: Ocean biogeochemistry, Springer, 53–97, 2003.
Chen, C.-T. A., Huang, T.-H., Chen, Y.-C., Bai, Y., He, X., and Kang, Y.: Air–sea exchanges of CO2 in the world's coastal seas, Biogeosciences, 10, 6509–6544, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-6509-2013, 2013.
Frankignoulle, M. and Borges, A. V.: European continental shelf as a significant sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 569–576, 2001.
Gutiérrez-Loza, L. and Ocampo-Torres, F. J.: Air-sea CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance in a coastal station in Baja California, México, in: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 35, p. 012012, IOP Publishing, 2016.
Hjalmarsson, S., Wesslander, K., Anderson, L. G., Omstedt, A., Perttilä, M., and Mintrop, L.: Distribution, long-term development and mass balance calculation of total alkalinity in the Baltic Sea, Cont. Shelf Res., 28, 593–601, 2008.
Högström, U.: Momentum fluxes and wind gradients in the marine boundary layer-a multi-platform study, Boreal Environ. Res., 13, 475–502, 2008.
Johansson, J.: Total and Regional Runoff to the Baltic Sea, Baltic Sea environment fact sheet, available at: http://www.helcom.fi/baltic-sea-trends/environment-fact-sheets/, last access: April 2017.
Jolliffe, I. T.: Principal component analysis, Springer, New York, 2002.
Kohonen, T.: The self-organizing map, Proceedings of the IEEE, 78, 1464–1480, 1990.
Krasakopoulou, E., Rapsomanikis, S., Papadopoulos, A., and Papathanassiou, E.: Partial pressure and air–sea CO2 flux in the Aegean Sea during February 2006, Cont. Shelf Res., 29, 1477–1488, 2009.
Kulinski, K. and Pempkowiak, J.: Carbon cycling in the Baltic Sea, vol. 6, Springer, 2012.
Lansø, A. S., Bendtsen, J., Christensen, J. H., Sørensen, L. L., Chen, H., Meijer, H. A. J., and Geels, C.: Sensitivity of the air–sea CO2 exchange in the Baltic Sea and Danish inner waters to atmospheric short-term variability, Biogeosciences, 12, 2753–2772, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-2753-2015, 2015.
Laruelle, G. G., Dürr, H. H., Slomp, C. P., and Borges, A. V.: Evaluation of sinks and sources of CO2 in the global coastal ocean using a spatially-explicit typology of estuaries and continental shelves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL043691, 2010.
Lehmann, A. and Myrberg, K.: Upwelling in the Baltic Sea a review, J. Marine Syst., 74, S3–S12, 2008.
Lenton, A., Tilbrook, B., Law, R. M., Bakker, D., Doney, S. C., Gruber, N., Ishii, M., Hoppema, M., Lovenduski, N. S., Matear, R. J., McNeil, B. I., Metzl, N., Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E., Monteiro, P. M. S., Rödenbeck, C., Sweeney, C., and Takahashi, T.: Sea–air CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean for the period 1990–2009, Biogeosciences, 10, 4037–4054, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-4037-2013, 2013.
Le Quéré, C., Moriarty, R., Andrew, R. M., Canadell, J. G., Sitch, S., Korsbakken, J. I., Friedlingstein, P., Peters, G. P., Andres, R. J., Boden, T. A., Houghton, R. A., House, J. I., Keeling, R. F., Tans, P., Arneth, A., Bakker, D. C. E., Barbero, L., Bopp, L., Chang, J., Chevallier, F., Chini, L. P., Ciais, P., Fader, M., Feely, R. A., Gkritzalis, T., Harris, I., Hauck, J., Ilyina, T., Jain, A. K., Kato, E., Kitidis, V., Klein Goldewijk, K., Koven, C., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefèvre, N., Lenton, A., Lima, I. D., Metzl, N., Millero, F., Munro, D. R., Murata, A., Nabel, J. E. M. S., Nakaoka, S., Nojiri, Y., O'Brien, K., Olsen, A., Ono, T., Pérez, F. F., Pfeil, B., Pierrot, D., Poulter, B., Rehder, G., Rödenbeck, C., Saito, S., Schuster, U., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Steinhoff, T., Stocker, B. D., Sutton, A. J., Takahashi, T., Tilbrook, B., van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T., van der Werf, G. R., van Heuven, S., Vandemark, D., Viovy, N., Wiltshire, A., Zaehle, S., and Zeng, N.: Global Carbon Budget 2015, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 349–396, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-7-349-2015, 2015.
Liu, K.-K., Atkinson, L., Chen, C. T. A., Gao, S., Hall, J., Macdonald, R. W., McManus, L. T., and Quinones, R.: Exploring continental margin carbon fluxes on a global scale, Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 81, 641–644, 2000a.
Liu, K. K., Iseki, K., and Chao, S. Y.: Continental margin carbon fluxes, The changing ocean carbon cycle: a midterm synthesis of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, 5, 187 pp., 2000b.
McGillis, W. R., Edson, J. B., Ware, J. D., Dacey, J. W., Hare, J. E., Fairall, C. W., and Wanninkhof, R.: Carbon dioxide flux techniques performed during GasEx-98, Mar. Chem., 75, 267–280, 2001.
Meier, H. E. M., Rutgersson, A., and Reckermann, M.: An Earth System Science Program for the Baltic Sea Region, Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 95, 109–110, 2014.
Myrberg, K. and Andrejev, O.: Main upwelling regions in the Baltic Sea-a statistical analysis based on three-dimensional modelling, Boreal Environ. Res., 8, 97–112, 2003.
Norman, M.: Air-Sea Fluxes of CO2: Analysis Methods and Impact on Carbon Budget, 2013.
Norman, M., Raj Parampil, S., Rutgersson, A., and Sahlée, E.: Influence of coastal upwelling on the air-sea gas exchange of CO2 in a Baltic Sea Basin, Tellus B, 65, 1–16, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.21831, 2013a.
Norman, M., Rutgersson, A., and Sahlée, E.: Impact of improved air–sea gas transfer velocity on fluxes and water chemistry in a Baltic Sea model, J. Marine Syst., 111, 175–188, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2012.10.013, 2013b.
Omstedt, A., Elken, J., Lehmann, A., and Piechura, J.: Knowledge of the Baltic Sea physics gained during the BALTEX and related programmes, Prog. Oceanogr., 63, 1–28, 2004.
Omstedt, A., Gustafsson, E., and Wesslander, K.: Modelling the uptake and release of carbon dioxide in the Baltic Sea surface water, Cont. Shelf Res., 29, 870–885, 2009.
Parard, G., Charantonis, A. A., and Rutgerson, A.: Remote sensing algorithm for sea surface CO2 in the Baltic Sea, Biogeoscience Discuss., 11, 12255–12294, https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-11-12255-2014, 2014.
Parard, G., Charantonis, A. A., and Rutgerson, A.: Remote sensing the sea surface CO2 of the Baltic Sea using the SOMLO methodology, Biogeosciences, 12, 3369–3384, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-3369-2015, 2015.
Parard, G., Charantonis, A. A., and Rutgersson, A.: Using satellite data to estimate partial pressure of CO2 in the Baltic Sea, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 121, 1002–1015, 2016.
Parard, G., Rutgerson, A., and Charantonis, A. A.: Remote Sensing data to estimate pCO2 and Air–Sea CO2 exchange, ECDS, https://ecds.se/dataset/remote-sensing-data-to-estimate-pco2-and-air-sea-co2-exchange, last access: November 2017.
Ribas-Ribas, M., Gómez-Parra, A., and Forja, J. M.: Air–sea CO2fluxes in the north-eastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Iberian Peninsula), Mar. Chem., 123, 56–66, 2011.
Rödenbeck, C., Keeling, R. F., Bakker, D. C. E., Metzl, N., Olsen, A., Sabine, C., and Heimann, M.: Global surface-ocean pCO2 and sea–air CO2 flux variability from an observation-driven ocean mixed-layer scheme, Ocean Sci., 9, 193–216, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-9-193-2013, 2013.
Rutgersson, A. and Smedman, A.: Enhanced air sea CO2 transfer due to water-side convection, J. Marine Syst., 80, 125–134, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.11.004, 2009.
Rutgersson, A., Norman, M., Schneider, B., Pettersson, H., and Sahlée, E.: The annual cycle of carbon dioxide and parameters influencing the air–sea carbon exchange in the Baltic Proper, J. Marine Syst., 74, 381–394, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.02.005, 2008.
Rutgersson, A., Norman, M., and Aström, G.: Atmospheric CO2 variation over the Baltic Sea and the impact on air-sea exchange, Boreal Environ. Res., 14, 238–249, 2009.
Sasse, T. P., McNeil, B. I., and Abramowitz, G.: A novel method for diagnosing seasonal to inter-annual surface ocean carbon dynamics from bottle data using neural networks, Biogeosciences, 10, 4319–4340, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-4319-2013, 2013.
Schneider, B.: The CO2 system of the Baltic Sea: Biogeochemical control and impact of anthropogenic CO2, in: Global Change and Baltic Coastal Zones, Springer, 33–49, 2011.
Schneider, B., Gülzow, W., Sadkowiak, B., and Rehder, G.: Detecting sinks and sources of CO2 and CH4 by ferrybox-based measurements in the Baltic Sea: Three case studies, J. Marine Syst., 140, 13–25, 2014.
Schneider, B., Buecker, S., Kaitala, S., Maunula, P., and Wasmund, N.: Characteristics of the spring/summer production in the Mecklenburg Bight (Baltic Sea) as revealed by long-term pCO2 data, Oceanologia, 57, 375–385, 2015.
Siegel, H. and Gerth, M.: Baltic Sea environment fact sheet Sea Surface Temperature in the Baltic Sea in 2011, HELCOM Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheets, available at: http://www.helcom.fi/baltic-sea-trends/environment-fact-sheets/ (last access: April 2017), 2012.
Smith, S. D., Fairall, C. W., Geernaert, G. L., and Hasse, L.: Air-sea fluxes: 25 years of progress, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 78, 247–290, 1996.
Soci, C., Landelius, T., Bazile, E., Undén, P., Mahfouf, J. F., Martin, E., and Besson, F.: EURO4M Project–REPORT, 2011.
Sproson, D. and Sahlée, E.: Modelling the impact of Baltic Sea upwelling on the atmospheric boundary layer, Tellus A, 66, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v66.24041, 2014.
Takahashi, T., Sutherland, S. C., Sweeney, C., Poisson, A., Metzl, N., Tilbrook, B., Bates, N., Wanninkhof, R., Feely, R. A., Sabine, C., Olafsson, J., and Nojiri, Y.: Global sea-air CO2 flux based on climatological surface ocean pCO2, and seasonal biological and temperature effects, Deep Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 1601–1622, 2002.
Takahashi, T., Sutherland, S. C., Wanninkhof, R., Sweeney, C., Feely, R. A., Chipman, D. W., Hales, B., Friederich, G., Chavez, F., Sabine, C., Watson, A., Bakker, D. C. C. E., Schuster, U., Metzl, N., Yoshikawa-Inoue, H., Ishii, M., Midorikawa, T., Nojiri, Y., Körtzinger, A., Steinhoff, T., Hoppema, M., Olafsson, J., Arnarson, T. S., Tilbrook, B., Johannessen, T., Olsen, A. O., Tilbrook, B., Bellerby, R., Wong, C. S., Delille, B., Bates, N. R. R., and De Baar, H. J. W.: Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO2, and net sea–air CO2 flux over the global oceans, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 56, 554–577, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.009, 2009.
Thomas, H. and Schneider, B.: The seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide in Baltic Sea surface waters, J. Marine Syst., 22, 53–67, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(99)00030-5, 1999.
Thomas, H., Ittekkot, V., Osterroht, C., and Schneider, B.: Preferential recycling of nutrientsthe ocean's way to increase new production and to pass nutrient limitation?, Limnol. Oceanogr., 44, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.19220.127.116.119, 1999.
Thomas, H., Bozec, Y., Elkalay, K., and de Baar, H. J. W.: Enhanced open ocean storage of CO2 from shelf sea pumping, Science, 304, 1005–1008, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1095491, 2004.
Tsunogai, S., Watanabe, S., and Sato, T.: Is there a continental shelf pump for the absorption of atmospheric CO2?, Tellus B, 51, 701–712, 1999.
Vargas, R., Loescher, H. W., Arredondo, T., Huber-Sannwald, E., Lara-Lara, R., and Yépez, E. A.: Opportunities for advancing carbon cycle science in Mexico: Toward a continental scale understanding, Environ. Sci. Policy, 21, 84–93, 2012.
Wanninkhof, R., Asher, W. E., Ho, D. T., Sweeney, C., and McGillis, W. R.: Advances in quantifying air-sea gas exchange and environmental forcing, Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci., 1, 213–244, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163742, 2009.
Wanninkhof, R., Park, G.-H., Takahashi, T., Sweeney, C., Feely, R., Nojiri, Y., Gruber, N., Doney, S. C., McKinley, G. A., Lenton, A., Le Quéré, C., Heinze, C., Schwinger, J., Graven, H., and Khatiwala, S.: Global ocean carbon uptake: magnitude, variability and trends, Biogeosciences, 10, 1983–2000, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-1983-2013, 2013.
Weiss, R. F., Jahnke, R. A., and Keeling, C. D.: Seasonal effects of temperature and salinity on the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater, Nature, 300, 511–513, 1982.
Wesslander, K.: The carbon dioxide system in the Baltic Sea surface waters, PhD thesis, University of Gothenburg, 2011.
Wesslander, K., Omstedt, A., and Schneider, B.: Inter-annual variation of the air-sea CO2 balance in the southern Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, Cont. Shelf Res., 30, 1511–1521, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2010.05.014, 2010.
Wollast, R.: The coastal organic carbon cycle: fluxes, sources and sinks, Ocean margin processes in global change, 365–381, 1991.
- Full-text XML
Coastal environments and shelf sea represent 7.6 % of the total oceanic surface area. They are, however, biogeochemically more dynamic and probably more vulnerable to climate change than the open ocean. Whatever the responses of the open ocean to climate change, they will propagate to the coastal ocean. We used the self-organizing multiple linear output (SOMLO) method to estimate the ocean surface pCO2 in the Baltic Sea from remotely sensed measurements and we estimated the air–sea CO2 flux.
Coastal environments and shelf sea represent 7.6 % of the total oceanic surface area. They are,...