Multiple drivers for Earth system changes in the Baltic Sea region
Multiple drivers for Earth system changes in the Baltic Sea region
Editor(s): M. Meier, A. Rutgersson, B. Smith, M. Reckermann, and I. Didenkulova
The goal of Baltic Earth (www.baltic.earth) is to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region, encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land, and in the sea, as well as processes and impacts related to the anthroposphere; i.e. the human impact is to be assessed at all levels wherever possible and reasonable. Recent research has shown that the observed environmental changes are often caused by a mixture of interwoven factors such as climate change and its associated impacts, eutrophication, pollution, fisheries, land cover change, and others. Each of these factors has a scientific and a societal dimension, which are often interdependent, and make the identification of a single or even dominant factor responsible for the change difficult.

The scope of this special issue is to attempt to describe the different factors for change, their impacts on the Earth system of the Baltic Sea region, and to demonstrate the capacity to model any of these factors in a single or a coupled approach. Are we able to simulate the observed changes in a realistic way? Are we able to produce credible scenarios for the future? Ultimately, this analysis should help to identify knowledge gaps and research needs for the coming years, to help find solutions for the challenges we face in the future.

The special issue refers to the 1st Baltic Earth Conference, held in Nida, Lithuania, 13–17 June 2016, which brought together the Baltic Earth research community to share and discuss issues related to the general conference topic "Multiple drivers for Earth System changes in the Baltic Sea region".

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18 Jan 2018
Contribution of atmospheric circulation to recent off-shore sea-level variations in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea
Sitar Karabil, Eduardo Zorita, and Birgit Hünicke
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 69–90, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-9-69-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-9-69-2018, 2018
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11 Dec 2017
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Structure and functioning of the acid–base system in the Baltic Sea
Karol Kuliński, Bernd Schneider, Beata Szymczycha, and Marcin Stokowski
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 1107–1120, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-1107-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-1107-2017, 2017
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05 Dec 2017
The potential of using remote sensing data to estimate air–sea CO2 exchange in the Baltic Sea
Gaëlle Parard, Anna Rutgersson, Sindu Raj Parampil, and Anastase Alexandre Charantonis
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 1093–1106, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-1093-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-1093-2017, 2017
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17 Nov 2017
Mechanisms of variability in decadal sea-level trends in the Baltic Sea over the 20th century
Sitar Karabil, Eduardo Zorita, and Birgit Hünicke
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 1031–1046, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-1031-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-1031-2017, 2017
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14 Nov 2017
Atmospheric teleconnections between the Arctic and the eastern Baltic Sea regions
Liisi Jakobson, Erko Jakobson, Piia Post, and Jaak Jaagus
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 1019–1030, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-1019-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-1019-2017, 2017
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03 Nov 2017
Trends and regime shifts in climatic conditions and river runoff in Estonia during 1951–2015
Jaak Jaagus, Mait Sepp, Toomas Tamm, Arvo Järvet, and Kiira Mõisja
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 963–976, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-963-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-963-2017, 2017
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26 Oct 2017
Climate indices for the Baltic states from principal component analysis
Liga Bethere, Juris Sennikovs, and Uldis Bethers
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 951–962, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-951-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-951-2017, 2017
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13 Oct 2017
Ship emissions and the use of current air cleaning technology: contributions to air pollution and acidification in the Baltic Sea
Björn Claremar, Karin Haglund, and Anna Rutgersson
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 901–919, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-901-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-901-2017, 2017
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14 Sep 2017
Effects of the 2014 major Baltic inflow on methane and nitrous oxide dynamics in the water column of the central Baltic Sea
Jukka-Pekka Myllykangas, Tom Jilbert, Gunnar Jakobs, Gregor Rehder, Jan Werner, and Susanna Hietanen
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 817–826, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-817-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-817-2017, 2017
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07 Sep 2017
Low-frequency variability in North Sea and Baltic Sea identified through simulations with the 3-D coupled physical–biogeochemical model ECOSMO
Ute Daewel and Corinna Schrum
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 801–815, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-801-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-801-2017, 2017
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08 Aug 2017
Satellite altimetry reveals spatial patterns of variations in the Baltic Sea wave climate
Nadezhda Kudryavtseva and Tarmo Soomere
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 697–706, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-697-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-697-2017, 2017
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17 Jul 2017
A wind proxy based on migrating dunes at the Baltic coast: statistical analysis of the link between wind conditions and sand movement
Svenja E. Bierstedt, Birgit Hünicke, Eduardo Zorita, and Juliane Ludwig
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 639–652, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-639-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-639-2017, 2017
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17 Jul 2017
Drought identification in the eastern Baltic region using NDVI
Egidijus Rimkus, Edvinas Stonevicius, Justinas Kilpys, Viktorija Maciulyte, and Donatas Valiukas
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 627–637, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-627-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-627-2017, 2017
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05 Jul 2017
Estimation of the high-spatial-resolution variability in extreme wind speeds for forestry applications
Ari Venäläinen, Mikko Laapas, Pentti Pirinen, Matti Horttanainen, Reijo Hyvönen, Ilari Lehtonen, Päivi Junila, Meiting Hou, and Heli M. Peltola
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 529–545, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-529-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-529-2017, 2017
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28 Jun 2017
Intensity of geodynamic processes in the Lithuanian part of the Curonian Spit
Algimantas Česnulevičius, Regina Morkūnaitė, Artūras Bautrėnas, Linas Bevainis, and Donatas Ovodas
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 419–428, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-419-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-419-2017, 2017
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14 Jun 2017
Evaluating the atmospheric drivers leading to the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
Nils H. Schade
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 405–418, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-405-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-405-2017, 2017
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12 Apr 2017
Assessment of extreme hydrological conditions in the Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea, and the impact of the nuclear power plant “Hanhikivi-1” on the local thermal regime
Anton Y. Dvornikov, Stanislav D. Martyanov, Vladimir A. Ryabchenko, Tatjana R. Eremina, Alexey V. Isaev, and Dmitry V. Sein
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 265–282, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-265-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-265-2017, 2017
06 Mar 2017
Characteristics of convective snow bands along the Swedish east coast
Julia Jeworrek, Lichuan Wu, Christian Dieterich, and Anna Rutgersson
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 163–175, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-163-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-163-2017, 2017
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