Articles | Volume 10, issue 3
Research article 06 Sep 2019
Research article | 06 Sep 2019
Ocean phosphorus inventory: large uncertainties in future projections on millennial timescales and their consequences for ocean deoxygenation
Tronje P. Kemena et al.
Daniela Niemeyer, Tronje P. Kemena, Katrin J. Meissner, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 357–367,
Maria-Theresia Verwega, Christopher J. Somes, Markus Schartau, Robyn E. Tuerena, Anne Lorrain, Andreas Oschlies, and Thomas Slawig
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
This work describes a ready-to-use collection of particulate organic carbon stable isotope ratio data sets. It covers the 1960s to 2010s, all main oceans, provides meta-information and gridded data. Best coverage exists in Atlantic, Indian and Southern Ocean surface waters during the 1990s. It indicates no major difference between methods, shows decreasing values towards high latitudes, with lowest in the Southern Ocean, and a long-term decline in all regions but the Southern Ocean.
Mariana Hill Cruz, Iris Kriest, Yonss Saranga José, Rainer Kiko, Helena Hauss, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 18, 2891–2916,Short summary
In this study we use a regional biogeochemical model of the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean to implicitly simulate the effect that fluctuations in populations of small pelagic fish, such as anchovy and sardine, may have on the biogeochemistry of the northern Humboldt Current System. To do so, we vary the zooplankton mortality in the model, under the assumption that these fishes eat zooplankton. We also evaluate the model for the first time against mesozooplankton observations.
Tianfei Xue, Ivy Frenger, A. E. Friederike Prowe, Yonss Saranga José, and Andreas Oschlies
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
The Peruvian system supports 10 % of the world's fishing yield. In the Peruvian system, wind and earth’s rotation bring cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface and allow phytoplankton to grow. But observations show that it grows worse at high upwelling. Using a model, we find that high upwelling happens when air mixes the water the most. Then phytoplankton is diluted and grows slowly due to low light and cool upwelled water. This study helps to estimate how it might change in a warming climate.
Henrike Schmidt, Julia Getzlaff, Ulrike Löptien, and Andreas Oschlies
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for OSShort summary
Oxygen poor regions in the open ocean restrict marine habitats. Global climate simulations show large uncertainties regarding the prediction of these areas. We analyze the representation of the simulated oxygen minimum zones in the Arabian Sea using ten climate models. We give an overview of the main deficiencies that cause the model-data misfit in oxygen concentrations. This detailed process analysis shall foster future model improvements regarding the oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea.
Miriam Tivig, David Peter Keller, and Andreas Oschlies
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Nitrogen is one of the most important elements for life in the ocean. A major source is the riverine discharge of dissolved nitrogen. While most global models omit rivers as nutrient source, we included nitrogen from rivers in our Earth System model and found that additional nitrogen affected marine biology locally but also in regions far off the coast. Depending on regional conditions, primary production was enhanced or even decreased, due to internal feedbacks in the nitrogen cycle.
Gerd Krahmann, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Andrew W. Dale, Marcus Dengler, Anja Engel, Nicolaas Glock, Patricia Grasse, Johannes Hahn, Helena Hauss, Mark Hopwood, Rainer Kiko, Alexandra Loginova, Carolin R. Löscher, Marie Maßmig, Alexandra-Sophie Roy, Renato Salvatteci, Stefan Sommer, Toste Tanhua, and Hela Mehrtens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The project "Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean" (SFB 754) was a multidisciplinary research project active from 2008 to 2019 aimed at a better understanding of the coupling between the tropical climate and ocean circulation and the ocean's oxygen and nutrient balance. On 34 research cruises, mainly in the Southeast Tropical Pacific and the Northeast Tropical Atlantic, 1071 physical, chemical and biological data sets were collected.
Jan Lüdke, Marcus Dengler, Stefan Sommer, David Clemens, Sören Thomsen, Gerd Krahmann, Andrew W. Dale, Eric P. Achterberg, and Martin Visbeck
Ocean Sci., 16, 1347–1366,Short summary
We analyse the intraseasonal variability of the alongshore circulation off Peru in early 2017, this circulation is very important for the supply of nutrients to the upwelling regime. The causes of this variability and its impact on the biogeochemistry are investigated. The poleward flow is strengthened during the observed time period, likely by a downwelling coastal trapped wave. The stronger current causes an increase in nitrate and reduces the deficit of fixed nitrogen relative to phosphorus.
Chia-Te Chien, Markus Pahlow, Markus Schartau, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4691–4712,Short summary
We demonstrate sensitivities of tracers to parameters of a new optimality-based plankton–ecosystem model (OPEM) in the UVic-ESCM. We find that changes in phytoplankton subsistence nitrogen quota strongly impact the nitrogen inventory, nitrogen fixation, and elemental stoichiometry of ordinary phytoplankton and diazotrophs. We introduce a new likelihood-based metric for model calibration, and it shows the capability of constraining globally averaged oxygen, nitrate, and DIC concentrations.
Markus Pahlow, Chia-Te Chien, Lionel A. Arteaga, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4663–4690,Short summary
The stoichiometry of marine biotic processes is important for the regulation of atmospheric CO2 and hence the global climate. We replace a simplistic, fixed-stoichiometry plankton module in an Earth system model with an optimal-regulation model with variable stoichiometry. Our model compares better to the observed carbon transfer from the surface to depth and surface nutrient distributions. This work could aid our ability to describe and project the role of marine ecosystems in the Earth system.
Alexandra N. Loginova, Andrew W. Dale, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Sören Thomsen, Stefan Sommer, David Clemens, Klaus Wallmann, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 17, 4663–4679,Short summary
We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen (DON) and matter (DOM) optical properties in pore waters and near-bottom waters of the eastern tropical South Pacific off Peru. The difference between diffusion-driven and net fluxes of DOC and DON and qualitative changes in DOM optical properties suggested active microbial utilisation of the released DOM at the sediment–water interface. Our results suggest that the sediment release of DOM contributes to microbial processes in the area.
Nadine Mengis, David P. Keller, Andrew H. MacDougall, Michael Eby, Nesha Wright, Katrin J. Meissner, Andreas Oschlies, Andreas Schmittner, Alexander J. MacIsaac, H. Damon Matthews, and Kirsten Zickfeld
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4183–4204,Short summary
In this paper, we evaluate the newest version of the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM 2.10). Combining recent model developments as a joint effort, this version is to be used in the next phase of model intercomparison and climate change studies. The UVic ESCM 2.10 is capable of reproducing changes in historical temperature and carbon fluxes well. Additionally, the model is able to reproduce the three-dimensional distribution of many ocean tracers.
Karin Kvale, David P. Keller, Wolfgang Koeve, Katrin J. Meissner, Chris Somes, Wanxuan Yao, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
We present a new model of biological marine silicate cycling for the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). This new model adds diatoms, which are a key aspect of the biological carbon pump, to an existing ecosystem model. Our modifications change how the model responds to warming, with net primary production declining more strongly than in previous versions. Diatoms in particular are simulated to decline with climate warming due to their high nutrient requirements.
Sabine Mathesius, Julia Getzlaff, Heiner Dietze, Andreas Oschlies, and Markus Schartau
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1775–1787,Short summary
Controlled manipulation of environmental conditions within large enclosures in the ocean, pelagic mesocosms, has become a standard method to explore responses of marine plankton communities to anthropogenic change. Among the challenges of interpreting mesocosm data is the often uncertain role of vertical mixing. This study introduces a mesocosm mixing model that is able to estimate vertical diffusivities and thus provides a tool for future mesocosm data analyses that account for mixing.
Anna Plass, Christian Schlosser, Stefan Sommer, Andrew W. Dale, Eric P. Achterberg, and Florian Scholz
Biogeosciences, 17, 3685–3704,Short summary
We compare the cycling of Fe and Cd in sulfidic sediments of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone. Due to the contrasting solubility of their sulfide minerals, the sedimentary Fe release and Cd burial fluxes covary with spatial and temporal distributions of H2S. Depending on the solubility of their sulfide minerals, sedimentary trace metal fluxes will respond differently to ocean deoxygenation/expansion of H2S concentrations, which may change trace metal stoichiometry of upwelling water masses.
Iris Kriest, Paul Kähler, Wolfgang Koeve, Karin Kvale, Volkmar Sauerland, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 17, 3057–3082,Short summary
Constants of global biogeochemical ocean models are often tuned
by handto match observations of nutrients or oxygen. We investigate the effect of this tuning by optimising six constants of a global biogeochemical model, simulated in five different offline circulations. Optimal values for three constants adjust to distinct features of the circulation applied and can afterwards be swapped among the circulations, without losing too much of the model's fit to observed quantities.
Sebastian Beil, Wolfgang Kuhnt, Ann Holbourn, Florian Scholz, Julian Oxmann, Klaus Wallmann, Janne Lorenzen, Mohamed Aquit, and El Hassane Chellai
Clim. Past, 16, 757–782,Short summary
Comparison of Cretaceous OAE1a and OAE2 in two drill cores with unusually high sedimentation rates shows that long-lasting negative δ13C excursions precede the positive δ13C excursions and that the evolution of the marine δ13C positive excursions is similar during both OAEs, although the durations of individual phases differ substantially. Phosphorus speciation data across OAE2 and the Mid-Cenomanian Event suggest a positive feedback loop, enhancing marine productivity during OAEs.
Jaard Hauschildt, Soeren Thomsen, Vincent Echevin, Andreas Oschlies, Yonss Saranga José, Gerd Krahmann, Laura A. Bristow, and Gaute Lavik
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
In this paper we quantify the subduction of upwelled nitrate due to physical processes on the order of several kilometers in the coastal upwelling off Peru and its effect on primary production. We also compare the prepresentation of these processes in a high-resolution simulation (~2.5 km) with a more coarsely resolved simulation (~12 km). To do this, we combine high-resolution shipboard observations of physical and biogeochemical parameters with a complex biogeochemical model configuration.
Sonja Geilert, Patricia Grasse, Kristin Doering, Klaus Wallmann, Claudia Ehlert, Florian Scholz, Martin Frank, Mark Schmidt, and Christian Hensen
Biogeosciences, 17, 1745–1763,Short summary
Marine silicate weathering is a key process of the marine silica cycle; however, its controlling processes are not well understood. In the Guaymas Basin, silicate weathering has been studied under markedly differing ambient conditions. Environmental settings like redox conditions or terrigenous input of reactive silicates appear to be major factors controlling marine silicate weathering. These factors need to be taken into account in future oceanic mass balances of Si and in modeling studies.
Fabian Reith, Wolfgang Koeve, David P. Keller, Julia Getzlaff, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 711–727,Short summary
This modeling study is the first one to look at the suitability and collateral effects of direct CO2 injection into the deep ocean as a means to bridge the gap between CO2 emissions and climate impacts of an intermediate CO2 emission scenario and a temperature target on a millennium timescale, such as the 1.5 °C climate target of the Paris Agreement.
Daniela Niemeyer, Iris Kriest, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 16, 3095–3111,Short summary
Recent studies suggest spatial variations of the marine particle flux length scale. Using a global biogeochemical ocean model, we investigate whether changes in particle size and size-dependent sinking can explain this variation. We address uncertainties by varying aggregate properties and circulation. Both aspects have an impact on the representation of nutrients, oxygen and oxygen minimum zones. The formation and sinking of large aggregates in productive areas lead to deeper flux penetration.
Yonss Saranga José, Lothar Stramma, Sunke Schmidtko, and Andreas Oschlies
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
In situ observations along the Peruvian and Chilean coasts have exhibited variability in the water column oxygen concentration. This variability, which is attributed to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), might have implication on the vertical extension of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) oxygen minimum zone. Here using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, we provide new insights into how ENSO variability affects the vertical extension of the oxygen-poor waters of the ETSP.
Karin F. Kvale, Katherine E. Turner, Angela Landolfi, and Katrin J. Meissner
Biogeosciences, 16, 1019–1034,Short summary
Drivers motivating the evolution of calcifying phytoplankton are poorly understood. We explore differences in global ocean chemistry with and without calcifiers during rapid climate changes. We find the presence of phytoplankton calcifiers stabilizes the volume of low oxygen regions and consequently stabilizes the concentration of nitrate, which is an important nutrient required for photosynthesis. By stabilizing nitrate concentrations, calcifiers improve their growth conditions.
Olaf Duteil, Andreas Oschlies, and Claus W. Böning
Biogeosciences, 15, 7111–7126,Short summary
Oxygen-depleted regions of the Pacific Ocean are currently expanding, which is threatening marine habitats. Based on numerical simulations, we show that the decrease in the intensity of the trade winds and the subsequent slowdown of the oceanic currents lead to a reduction in oxygen supply. Our study suggests that the prevailing positive conditions of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation since 1975, a major source of natural variability, may explain a significant part of the current deoxygenation.
Marine Bretagnon, Aurélien Paulmier, Véronique Garçon, Boris Dewitte, Séréna Illig, Nathalie Leblond, Laurent Coppola, Fernando Campos, Federico Velazco, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Andreas Oschlies, J. Martin Hernandez-Ayon, Helmut Maske, Oscar Vergara, Ivonne Montes, Philippe Martinez, Edgardo Carrasco, Jacques Grelet, Olivier Desprez-De-Gesincourt, Christophe Maes, and Lionel Scouarnec
Biogeosciences, 15, 5093–5111,Short summary
In oxygen minimum zone, the fate of the organic matter is a key question as the low oxygen condition would preserve the OM and thus enhance the biological carbon pump while the high microbial activity would foster the remineralisation and the greenhouse gases emission. To investigate this paradigm, sediment traps were deployed off Peru. We pointed out the influence of the oxygenation as well as the organic matter quantity and quality on the carbon transfer efficiency in the oxygen minimum zone.
Konstantin Stolpovsky, Andrew W. Dale, and Klaus Wallmann
Biogeosciences, 15, 3391–3407,Short summary
The paper describes a new way to parameterize G-type models in marine sediments using data about reactivity of organic carbon sinking to the seafloor.
Volkmar Sauerland, Ulrike Löptien, Claudine Leonhard, Andreas Oschlies, and Anand Srivastav
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1181–1198,Short summary
We present a concept to prove that a parametric model is well calibrated, i.e., that changes of its free parameters cannot lead to a much better model–data misfit anymore. The intention is motivated by the fact that calibrating global biogeochemical ocean models is important for assessment and inter-model comparison but computationally expensive.
Nadine Mengis, David P. Keller, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 15–31,Short summary
The Systematic Correlation Matrix Evaluation (SCoMaE) method applies statistical information to systematically select, transparent, nonredundant indicators for a comprehensive assessment of the Earth system state. We show that due to changing climate forcing, such as anthropogenic climate change, the ad hoc assessment indicators might need to be reevaluated. Within an iterative process, this method would allow us to select scientifically consistent and societally relevant assessment indicators.
Karin F. Kvale, Samar Khatiwala, Heiner Dietze, Iris Kriest, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2425–2445,Short summary
Computer models of ocean biology and chemistry are becoming increasingly complex, and thus more expensive, to run. One solution is to approximate the behaviour of the ocean physics and store that information outside of the model. That
offlineinformation can then be used to calculate a steady-state solution from the model's biology and chemistry, without waiting for a traditional
onlineintegration to complete. We show this offline method reproduces online results and is 100 times faster.
James C. Orr, Raymond G. Najjar, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, John L. Bullister, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Scott C. Doney, John P. Dunne, Jean-Claude Dutay, Heather Graven, Stephen M. Griffies, Jasmin G. John, Fortunat Joos, Ingeborg Levin, Keith Lindsay, Richard J. Matear, Galen A. McKinley, Anne Mouchet, Andreas Oschlies, Anastasia Romanou, Reiner Schlitzer, Alessandro Tagliabue, Toste Tanhua, and Andrew Yool
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2169–2199,Short summary
The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is a model comparison effort under Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Its physical component is described elsewhere in this special issue. Here we describe its ocean biogeochemical component (OMIP-BGC), detailing simulation protocols and analysis diagnostics. Simulations focus on ocean carbon, other biogeochemical tracers, air-sea exchange of CO2 and related gases, and chemical tracers used to evaluate modeled circulation.
Daniela Niemeyer, Tronje P. Kemena, Katrin J. Meissner, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 357–367,
Markus Schartau, Philip Wallhead, John Hemmings, Ulrike Löptien, Iris Kriest, Shubham Krishna, Ben A. Ward, Thomas Slawig, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 14, 1647–1701,Short summary
Plankton models have become an integral part in marine ecosystem and biogeochemical research. These models differ in complexity and in their number of parameters. How values are assigned to parameters is essential. An overview of major methodologies of parameter estimation is provided. Aspects of parameter identification in the literature are diverse. Individual findings could be better synthesized if notation and expertise of the different scientific communities would be reasonably merged.
Yonss Saranga José, Heiner Dietze, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 14, 1349–1364,Short summary
This study aims to investigate the diverse subsurface nutrient patterns observed within anticyclonic eddies in the upwelling system off Peru. Two simulated anticyclonic eddies with opposing subsurface nitrate concentrations were analysed. The results show that diverse nutrient patterns within anticyclonic eddies are related to the presence of water mass from different origins at different depths, responding to variations in depth of the circulation strength at the edge of the eddy.
Iris Kriest, Volkmar Sauerland, Samar Khatiwala, Anand Srivastav, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 127–154,Short summary
Global biogeochemical ocean models are subject to a high level of parametric uncertainty. This may be of consequence for their skill with respect to accurately describing features of the present ocean and their sensitivity to possible environmental changes. We present the first results from a framework that combines an offline biogeochemical tracer transport model with an estimation of distribution algorithm, calibrating six biogeochemical model parameters against observed oxygen and nutrients.
Fabian Reith, David P. Keller, and Andreas Oschlies
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 797–812,
Bei Su, Markus Pahlow, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 13, 4985–5001,Short summary
Previously identified positive feedbacks within the nitrogen cycle in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) have challenged our understanding of the observed dynamics and stability of the nitrogen inventory. We present a box model analysis of the biological and biogeochemical relations in the ETSP among nitrogen deposition, benthic denitrification and phosphate regeneration. Our results suggest dominant stabilizing feedbacks tending to keep a balanced nitrogen inventory in the ETSP.
Jessica Gier, Stefan Sommer, Carolin R. Löscher, Andrew W. Dale, Ruth A. Schmitz, and Tina Treude
Biogeosciences, 13, 4065–4080,Short summary
Benthic nitrogen fixation and sulfate reduction were investigated in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone. The data suggest a coupling of both activities to a large extent, but that also sulfide and organic matter availability are controlling the benthic diazotrophy in this area. The molecular analysis confirms the presence of heterotrophic diazotrophs. This work improves our understanding of N cycling in OMZ sediments and the understanding of N sources in the marine environment.
Pei-Chuan Chuang, Megan B. Young, Andrew W. Dale, Laurence G. Miller, Jorge A. Herrera-Silveira, and Adina Paytan
Biogeosciences, 13, 2981–3001,Short summary
A transport-reaction model was used to simulate porewater methane and sulfate concentrations. Model results and sediment slurry incubation experiments show high methane production rates supported by non-competitive substrates and ample dissolved and labile organic matter as well as methane from deeper sediment through bubbles dissolution and diffusion. The shallow methane production and accumulation depths in these sediments promote high methane fluxes to the water column and atmosphere.
Ulrike Lomnitz, Stefan Sommer, Andrew W. Dale, Carolin R. Löscher, Anna Noffke, Klaus Wallmann, and Christian Hensen
Biogeosciences, 13, 1367–1386,Short summary
The study presents a P budget including the P input from the water column, the P burial in the sediments, as well as the P release from the sediments. We found that the P input could not maintain the P release rates. Consideration of other P sources, e.g., terrigenous P and P released from the dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, showed that none of these can account for the missing P. Thus, it is likely that abundant sulfide-oxidizing bacteria release the missing P during our measurement period.
K. Wallmann, B. Schneider, and M. Sarnthein
Clim. Past, 12, 339–375,Short summary
An Earth system model was set up and applied to evaluate the effects of sea-level change, ocean dynamics, and nutrient utilization on seawater composition and atmospheric pCO2 over the last glacial cycle. The model results strongly suggest that global sea-level change contributed significantly to the slow glacial decline in atmospheric pCO2 and the gradual pCO2 increase over the Holocene whereas the rapid deglacial pCO2 rise was induced by fast changes in ocean dynamics and nutrient utilization.
J. Maltby, S. Sommer, A. W. Dale, and T. Treude
Biogeosciences, 13, 283–299,Short summary
The concurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction was investigated in surface sediments (0–25cm b.s.f.) traversing the Peruvian margin. Surface methanogenesis was mainly based on non-competitive substrates to avoid competition with sulfate reducers. Accordingly, surface methanogenesis was mainly controlled by the availability of labile organic matter. The high relevance of surface methanogenesis especially on the shelf indicates its underestimated role within benthic methane budgeting.
P. Steeb, S. Krause, P. Linke, C. Hensen, A. W. Dale, M. Nuzzo, and T. Treude
Biogeosciences, 12, 6687–6706,Short summary
We combined field, laboratory (sediment-flow-through system) and numerical modeling work to investigate cold seep sediments at Quespos Slide, offshore of Costa Rica. The results demonstrated the efficiency of the benthic methane filter and provided an estimate for its response time (ca. 170 days) to changes in fluid fluxes.
I. Kriest and A. Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2929–2957,Short summary
We use a global model of oceanic P, N, and O2 cycles to investigate consequences of uncertainties in description of organic matter sinking, remineralization, denitrification, and N2-Fixation. After all biogeochemical and physical processes have been spun-up into a dynamically consistent steady-state, particle sinking and oxidant affinities of aerobic and anaerobic remineralization determine the extent of oxygen minimum zones, global nitrogen fluxes, and the oceanic nitrogen inventory.
W. Koeve, H. Wagner, P. Kähler, and A. Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2079–2094,Short summary
The natural abundance of 14C in CO2 dissolved in seawater is often used to evaluate circulation and age in the ocean and in ocean models. We study limitations of using natural 14C to determine the time elapsed since water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C age is dominated by two equally important components, (1) the time component of circulation and (2) the “preformed 14C-age”. Considering preformed 14C-age is critical for an assessment of circulation in models.
L. Nickelsen, D. P. Keller, and A. Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1357–1381,Short summary
In this paper we find that including the marine cycle of the phytoplankton nutrient iron in a global climate model improves the agreement between observed and simulated nutrient concentrations in the ocean and that a better description of the source of iron from the sediment to the ocean is more important than that of iron-containing dust deposition. Finally, we find that the response of the iron cycle to climate warming affects the phytoplankton growth and nutrient cycles.
A. W. Dale, S. Sommer, U. Lomnitz, I. Montes, T. Treude, V. Liebetrau, J. Gier, C. Hensen, M. Dengler, K. Stolpovsky, L. D. Bryant, and K. Wallmann
Biogeosciences, 12, 1537–1559,
B. Su, M. Pahlow, H. Wagner, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 12, 1113–1130,Short summary
A box model of the eastern tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone suggests that anaerobic water-column remineralization rates have to be slower than aerobic remineralization in order to explain the relatively high values of observed nitrate concentrations. Lateral oxygen supply sufficient to oxidize about one-fifth of the export production is required to prevent an anoxic deep ocean. Under these circumstances, the region can be a net source of fixed nitrogen to the surrounding ocean.
W. Koeve, O. Duteil, A. Oschlies, P. Kähler, and J. Segschneider
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2393–2408,
A. E. F. Prowe, M. Pahlow, S. Dutkiewicz, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 11, 3397–3407,
J. Friedrich, F. Janssen, D. Aleynik, H. W. Bange, N. Boltacheva, M. N. Çagatay, A. W. Dale, G. Etiope, Z. Erdem, M. Geraga, A. Gilli, M. T. Gomoiu, P. O. J. Hall, D. Hansson, Y. He, M. Holtappels, M. K. Kirf, M. Kononets, S. Konovalov, A. Lichtschlag, D. M. Livingstone, G. Marinaro, S. Mazlumyan, S. Naeher, R. P. North, G. Papatheodorou, O. Pfannkuche, R. Prien, G. Rehder, C. J. Schubert, T. Soltwedel, S. Sommer, H. Stahl, E. V. Stanev, A. Teaca, A. Tengberg, C. Waldmann, B. Wehrli, and F. Wenzhöfer
Biogeosciences, 11, 1215–1259,
S. Krause, P. Steeb, C. Hensen, V. Liebetrau, A. W. Dale, M. Nuzzo, and T. Treude
Biogeosciences, 11, 507–523,
I. Kriest and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 10, 8401–8422,
O. Duteil, W. Koeve, A. Oschlies, D. Bianchi, E. Galbraith, I. Kriest, and R. Matear
Biogeosciences, 10, 7723–7738,
C. J. Somes, A. Oschlies, and A. Schmittner
Biogeosciences, 10, 5889–5910,
V. Cocco, F. Joos, M. Steinacher, T. L. Frölicher, L. Bopp, J. Dunne, M. Gehlen, C. Heinze, J. Orr, A. Oschlies, B. Schneider, J. Segschneider, and J. Tjiputra
Biogeosciences, 10, 1849–1868,
V. J. Bertics, C. R. Löscher, I. Salonen, A. W. Dale, J. Gier, R. A. Schmitz, and T. Treude
Biogeosciences, 10, 1243–1258,
A. Landolfi, H. Dietze, W. Koeve, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 10, 1351–1363,
M. El Jarbi, J. Rückelt, T. Slawig, and A. Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 10, 1169–1182,
A. W. Dale, V. J. Bertics, T. Treude, S. Sommer, and K. Wallmann
Biogeosciences, 10, 629–651,
L. M. Zamora, A. Oschlies, H. W. Bange, K. B. Huebert, J. D. Craig, A. Kock, and C. R. Löscher
Biogeosciences, 9, 5007–5022,
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David I. Armstrong McKay, Sarah E. Cornell, Katherine Richardson, and Johan Rockström
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESDShort summary
We use an Earth system model with two new ecosystem features (plankton size traits and temperature-sensitive nutrient recycling) to revaluate the effect of climate change on organic carbon removal (the
biological pump) and ocean carbon drawdown. These features lead to contrary pump responses to warming, and a stronger pump counter-intuitively leads to less carbon drawdown overall. These results show the importance of including ecological dynamics in models for understanding climate feedbacks.
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 685–709,Short summary
Various minor carbon flows such as trace gas emissions, disturbance-induced emissions, and subsurface exports can affect the carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems in complicated ways. This study assessed how much these minor flows influence the carbon budget using a process-based model. It was found that the minor flows, though small in magnitude, could significantly affect net carbon budget at as much strengths as major flows, implying their long-term importance in Earth's climate system.
Efrén López-Blanco, Jean-François Exbrayat, Magnus Lund, Torben R. Christensen, Mikkel P. Tamstorf, Darren Slevin, Gustaf Hugelius, Anthony A. Bloom, and Mathew Williams
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 233–255,Short summary
The terrestrial CO2 exchange in Arctic ecosystems plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and is particularly sensitive to the ongoing warming experienced in recent years. To improve our understanding of the atmosphere–biosphere interplay, we evaluated the state of the terrestrial pan-Arctic carbon cycling using a promising data assimilation system in the first 15 years of the 21st century. This is crucial when it comes to making predictions about the future state of the carbon cycle.
Gianna Battaglia and Fortunat Joos
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 797–816,Short summary
Human-caused, climate change hazards in the ocean continue to aggravate over a very long time. For business as usual, we project the ocean oxygen content to decrease by 40 % over the next thousand years. This would likely have severe consequences for marine life. Global warming and oxygen loss are linked, and meeting the warming target of the Paris Climate Agreement effectively limits related marine hazards. Developments over many thousands of years should be considered to assess marine risks.
Sandy P. Harrison, Patrick J. Bartlein, Victor Brovkin, Sander Houweling, Silvia Kloster, and I. Colin Prentice
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 663–677,Short summary
Temperature affects fire occurrence and severity. Warming will increase fire-related carbon emissions and thus atmospheric CO2. The size of this feedback is not known. We use charcoal records to estimate pre-industrial fire emissions and a simple land–biosphere model to quantify the feedback. We infer a feedback strength of 5.6 3.2 ppm CO2 per degree of warming and a gain of 0.09 ± 0.05 for a climate sensitivity of 2.8 K. Thus, fire feedback is a large part of the climate–carbon-cycle feedback.
Markus Adloff, Christian H. Reick, and Martin Claussen
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 413–425,Short summary
Computer simulations show that during an ice age a strong atmospheric CO2 increase would have resulted in stronger carbon uptake of the continents than today. Causes are the larger potential of glacial vegetation to increase its photosynthetic efficiency under increasing CO2 and the smaller amount of carbon in extratropical soils during an ice age that can be released under greenhouse warming. Hence, for different climates the Earth system is differently sensitive to carbon cycle perturbations.
Jean-François Exbrayat, A. Anthony Bloom, Pete Falloon, Akihiko Ito, T. Luke Smallman, and Mathew Williams
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 153–165,Short summary
We use global observations of current terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) to constrain the uncertainty in large ensemble 21st century projections of NPP under a "business as usual" scenario using a skill-based multi-model averaging technique. Our results show that this procedure helps greatly reduce the uncertainty in global projections of NPP. We also identify regions where uncertainties in models and observations remain too large to confidently conclude a sign of the change of NPP.
Maarten C. Braakhekke, Karin T. Rebel, Stefan C. Dekker, Benjamin Smith, Arthur H. W. Beusen, and Martin J. Wassen
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 1121–1139,Short summary
Nitrogen input in natural ecosystems usually has a positive effect on plant growth. However, too much N causes N leaching, which contributes to water pollution. Using a global model we estimated that N leaching from natural lands has increased by 73 % during the 20th century, mainly due to rising N deposition from the atmosphere caused by emissions from fossil fuels and agriculture. Climate change and increasing CO2 concentration had positive and negative effects (respectively) on N leaching.
Karol Kuliński, Bernd Schneider, Beata Szymczycha, and Marcin Stokowski
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 1107–1120,Short summary
This review describes the general knowledge of the marine acid–base system as well as the peculiarities identified and reported for the Baltic Sea specifically. We discuss issues such as dissociation constants in the brackish water, the structure of the total alkalinity in the Baltic Sea, long-term changes in total alkalinity, and the acid–base effects of biomass production and mineralization. We identify research gaps and specify bottlenecks concerning the Baltic Sea acid–base system.
Gaëlle Parard, Anna Rutgersson, Sindu Raj Parampil, and Anastase Alexandre Charantonis
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 1093–1106,Short summary
Coastal environments and shelf sea represent 7.6 % of the total oceanic surface area. They are, however, biogeochemically more dynamic and probably more vulnerable to climate change than the open ocean. Whatever the responses of the open ocean to climate change, they will propagate to the coastal ocean. We used the self-organizing multiple linear output (SOMLO) method to estimate the ocean surface pCO2 in the Baltic Sea from remotely sensed measurements and we estimated the air–sea CO2 flux.
Jukka-Pekka Myllykangas, Tom Jilbert, Gunnar Jakobs, Gregor Rehder, Jan Werner, and Susanna Hietanen
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 817–826,Short summary
The deep waters of the Baltic Sea host an expanding
dead zone, where low-oxygen conditions favour the natural production of two strong greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide. Oxygen is introduced into the deeps only during rare
salt pulses. We studied the effects of a recent salt pulse on Baltic greenhouse gas production. We found that where oxygen was introduced, methane was largely removed, while nitrous oxide production increased, indicating strong effects on greenhouse gas dynamics.
Eduardo Eiji Maeda, Xuanlong Ma, Fabien Hubert Wagner, Hyungjun Kim, Taikan Oki, Derek Eamus, and Alfredo Huete
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 439–454,Short summary
The Amazon River basin continuously transfers massive volumes of water from the land surface to the atmosphere, thereby having massive influence on global climate patterns. Nonetheless, the characteristics of ET across the Amazon basin, as well as the relative contribution of the multiple drivers to this process, are still uncertain. This study carries out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers across the Amazon Basin.
Yujin Zeng, Zhenghui Xie, and Shuang Liu
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 113–127,Short summary
Irrigation constitutes 70 % of human water consumption. In this study, using the improved CLM4.5 with an active crop model, two 1 km simulations investigating the effects of irrigation on latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes in the Heihe River basin in northwestern China were conducted using a high-quality irrigation dataset compiled from 1981 to 2013. The results revealed the key role of irrigation in the control of land–atmosphere water, energy, and carbon fluxes in semiarid basin.
Rashid Rafique, Jianyang Xia, Oleksandra Hararuk, Ghassem R. Asrar, Guoyong Leng, Yingping Wang, and Yiqi Luo
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 649–658,Short summary
Traceability analysis was used to diagnose the causes of differences in simulating ecosystem carbon storage capacity between two land models: CLMA-CASA and CABLE. Results showed that the simulated ecosystem carbon storage capacity is largely influenced by the photosynthesis parameterization, residence time and organic matter decomposition.
Roman Sitko, Jaroslav Vido, Jaroslav Škvarenina, Viliam Pichler, Ĺubomír Scheer, Jana Škvareninová, and Paulína Nalevanková
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 385–395,
A. Kessler and J. Tjiputra
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 295–312,Short summary
The uncertainty of ocean carbon uptake in ESMs is projected to grow 2-fold by the end of the 21st century. We found that models that take up anomalously low (high) CO2 in the Southern Ocean (SO) today project low (high) cumulative CO2 uptake in the 21st century; thus the SO can be used to constrain future global uptake uncertainty. Inter-model spread in the SO carbon sink arises from variations in the pCO2 seasonality, specifically bias in the simulated timing and amplitude of NPP and SST.
R. W. Scholz and F.-W. Wellmer
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 103–117,Short summary
The 2014 USGS data could decrease from 67 Gt phosphate rock (PR) reserves to 58.5 Gt marketable PR (PR-M) if data on PR-ore are transferred to PR-M. The 50 Gt PR-M estimate for Moroccan reserves is reasonable. Geoeconomics suggests that large parts of resources and geopotential become future reserves. As phosphate is essential for food production and reserve data alone are unsufficient for assessing long-run supply security, an international standing committee may assess future PR accessibility.
F. Lehner, F. Joos, C. C. Raible, J. Mignot, A. Born, K. M. Keller, and T. F. Stocker
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 411–434,Short summary
We present the first last-millennium simulation with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) including an interactive carbon cycle in both ocean and land component. Volcanic eruptions emerge as the strongest forcing factor for the preindustrial climate and carbon cycle. We estimate the climate-carbon-cycle feedback in CESM to be at the lower bounds of empirical estimates (1.3ppm/°C). The time of emergence for interannual global land and ocean carbon uptake rates are 1947 and 1877, respectively.
C. Heinze, S. Meyer, N. Goris, L. Anderson, R. Steinfeldt, N. Chang, C. Le Quéré, and D. C. E. Bakker
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 327–358,Short summary
Rapidly rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused by human actions over the past 250 years have raised cause for concern that changes in Earth’s climate system may progress at a much faster pace and larger extent than during the past 20,000 years. Questions that yet need to be answered are what the carbon uptake kinetics of the oceans will be in the future and how the increase in oceanic carbon inventory will affect its ecosystems. Major future ocean carbon research challenges are discussed.
J. D. Edixhoven, J. Gupta, and H. H. G. Savenije
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 491–507,Short summary
Phosphate rock is a finite resource required for fertilizer production. Following a debate over the PR depletion timeline, global PR reserves were recently increased 4-fold based mainly on a restatement of Moroccan reserves. We review whether this restatement is methodologically compatible with resource terminology used in major resource classifications, whether resource classification nomenclature is sufficiently understood in the literature, and whether the recent restatements are reliable.
B. Foereid, D. S. Ward, N. Mahowald, E. Paterson, and J. Lehmann
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 211–221,
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 41–42,
R. Séférian, L. Bopp, D. Swingedouw, and J. Servonnat
Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 109–127,
D. Wisser, S. Marchenko, J. Talbot, C. Treat, and S. Frolking
Earth Syst. Dynam., 2, 121–138,
Earth Syst. Dynam., 2, 37–51,
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Oceanic deoxygenation is driven by climate change in several areas of the global ocean. Measurements indicate that ocean volumes with very low oxygen levels expand, with consequences for marine organisms and fishery. We found climate-change-driven phosphorus (P) input in the ocean is hereby an important driver for deoxygenation on longer timescales with effects in the next millennia.
Oceanic deoxygenation is driven by climate change in several areas of the global ocean....