Drought identification in the eastern Baltic region using NDVI
- 1Department of Hydrology and Climatology, Institute of Geosciences, Vilnius University, Čiurlionio str. 21, Vilnius, 03101, Lithuania
- 2Division of Climatology, Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service, Rudnios str. 6, Vilnius, 09300, Lithuania
Abstract. Droughts are phenomena that affect large areas. Remote sensing data covering large territories can be used to assess the impact and extent of droughts. Drought effect on vegetation was determined using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) in the eastern Baltic Sea region located between 53–60° N and 20–30° E. The effect of precipitation deficit on vegetation in arable land and broadleaved and coniferous forest was analysed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) calculated for 1- to 9-month timescales. Vegetation has strong seasonality in the analysed area. The beginning and the end of the vegetation season depends on the distance from the Baltic Sea, which affects temperature and precipitation patterns. The vegetation season in the southeastern part of the region is 5–6 weeks longer than in the northwestern part. The early spring air temperature, snowmelt water storage in the soil and precipitation have the largest influence on the NDVI values in the first half of the active growing season. Precipitation deficit in the first part of the vegetation season only has a significant impact on the vegetation on arable land. The vegetation in the forests is less sensitive to the moisture deficit. Correlation between VCI and the same month SPI1 is usually negative in the study area. It means that wetter conditions lead to lower VCI values, while the correlation is usually positive between the VCI and the SPI of the previous month. With a longer SPI scale the correlation gradually shifts towards the positive coefficients. The positive correlation between 3- and 6-month SPI and VCI was observed on the arable land and in both types of forests in the second half of vegetation season. The precipitation deficit is only one of the vegetation condition drivers and NDVI cannot be used universally to identify droughts, but it may be applied to better assess the effect of droughts on vegetation in the eastern Baltic Sea region.