Articles | Volume 13, issue 4
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1417–1435, 2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-13-1417-2022
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1417–1435, 2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-13-1417-2022
Research article
17 Oct 2022
Research article | 17 Oct 2022

Process-based estimate of global-mean sea-level changes in the Common Era

Nidheesh Gangadharan et al.

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Short summary
We describe the contributions of ocean thermal expansion and land-ice melting (ice sheets and glaciers) to global-mean sea-level (GMSL) changes in the Common Era. The mass contributions are the major sources of GMSL changes in the pre-industrial Common Era and glaciers are the largest contributor. The paper also describes the current state of climate modelling, uncertainties and knowledge gaps along with the potential implications of the past variabilities in the contemporary sea-level rise.
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