Articles | Volume 13, issue 1
15 Mar 2022
Review |  | 15 Mar 2022

Climate change in the Baltic Sea region: a summary

H. E. Markus Meier, Madline Kniebusch, Christian Dieterich, Matthias Gröger, Eduardo Zorita, Ragnar Elmgren, Kai Myrberg, Markus P. Ahola, Alena Bartosova, Erik Bonsdorff, Florian Börgel, Rene Capell, Ida Carlén, Thomas Carlund, Jacob Carstensen, Ole B. Christensen, Volker Dierschke, Claudia Frauen, Morten Frederiksen, Elie Gaget, Anders Galatius, Jari J. Haapala, Antti Halkka, Gustaf Hugelius, Birgit Hünicke, Jaak Jaagus, Mart Jüssi, Jukka Käyhkö, Nina Kirchner, Erik Kjellström, Karol Kulinski, Andreas Lehmann, Göran Lindström, Wilhelm May, Paul A. Miller, Volker Mohrholz, Bärbel Müller-Karulis, Diego Pavón-Jordán, Markus Quante, Marcus Reckermann, Anna Rutgersson, Oleg P. Savchuk, Martin Stendel, Laura Tuomi, Markku Viitasalo, Ralf Weisse, and Wenyan Zhang

Data sets

ESA Permafrost Climate Change Initiative (Permafrost_cci): Permafrost extent for the Northern Hemisphere, v2.0. J. Obu, S. Westermann, C. Barboux, A. Bartsch, R. Delaloye, G. Grosse, B. Heim, G. Hugelius, A. Irrgang, A. M. Kääb, C. Kroisleitner, H. Matthes, I. Nitze, C. Pellet, F. M. Seifert, T. Strozzi, U. Wegmüller, M. Wieczorek, and A. Wiesmann

Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia NAO

KNMI Climate Explorer and Met Office, Atlantic Multidecadal Variability index AMO

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations - Monthly mean air temperatures since 1756, Dataset version 1 A. Moberg

Copernicus Climate Change Service, precipitation data E-OBS

Long-term times-series of the annual N and P pools in the major basins of the Baltic Sea: 1970-2020 O. P. Savchuk

European Environment Agency, maximum annual extent of ice cover in the Baltic Sea since 1720 provided by Finnish Meteorological Institute EEA

Finnish Meteorological Institute, annual maximum ice extent of the Baltic Sea (MIB) MIB

innish Meteorological Institute~(FMI), level ice thickness and length of the ice season data available from the ice service at FMI upon request FMI

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), oceanographic database ICES

Short summary
Based on the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports of this thematic issue in Earth System Dynamics and recent peer-reviewed literature, current knowledge about the effects of global warming on past and future changes in the climate of the Baltic Sea region is summarised and assessed. The study is an update of the Second Assessment of Climate Change (BACC II) published in 2015 and focuses on the atmosphere, land, cryosphere, ocean, sediments, and the terrestrial and marine biosphere.
Final-revised paper