Articles | Volume 13, issue 2
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-13-711-2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-13-711-2022
Review
 | 
11 Apr 2022
Review |  | 11 Apr 2022

Global climate change and the Baltic Sea ecosystem: direct and indirect effects on species, communities and ecosystem functioning

Markku Viitasalo and Erik Bonsdorff

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Short summary
Climate change has multiple effects on Baltic Sea species, communities and ecosystem functioning. Effects on species distribution, eutrophication and trophic interactions are expected. We review these effects, identify knowledge gaps and draw conclusions based on recent (2010–2021) field, experimental and modelling research. An extensive summary table is compiled to highlight the multifaceted impacts of climate-change-driven processes in the Baltic Sea.
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