05 Apr 2023
 | 05 Apr 2023
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ESD.

Nonlinear Time Series Analysis of Coastal Temperatures and El Niño–Southern Oscillation Events in the Eastern South Pacific

Berenice Rojo-Garibaldi, Manuel Contreras-López, Simone Giannerini, David Alberto Salas-de-León, Verónica Vázquez-Guerra, and Julyan H. E. Cartwright

Abstract. We investigate whether there are correlations between temperatures on the Eastern South Pacific coast, influenced by the Humboldt Current System, and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, using a set of 16 oceanic and atmospheric temperature time series from Chilean coastal stations distributed between 18° and 45° S. Spectral analysis indicates periodicities that can be related to both internal and external forcing, involving not only ENSO, but also the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the Southern Annual Mode, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and the lunar nodal cycle. We carry out a nonlinear time series analysis. An asymptotic neural network test for chaos based on the largest global Lyapunov exponent indicates that the temperature dynamics along the Chilean coast is not chaotic. We calculate local Lyapunov exponents that characterize the short-term stability of the series. Using a cross entropy test, we find that just two stations in northern Chile, one oceanic, Iquique, and one atmospheric, Arica, present a significant positive correlation of local Lyapunov exponents with ENSO, with Iquique being the station that displays very particular regional characteristics. This work, having a large-scale study area and using time series from hitherto unused sources (naval records), reveals the nonlinear dynamics of climate variability in Chile.

Berenice Rojo-Garibaldi et al.

Status: open (extended)

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Berenice Rojo-Garibaldi et al.

Berenice Rojo-Garibaldi et al.


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Short summary
Our study focuses on Chile, which is affected by the prevailing ocean currents, upwellings and El Niño, which generate the weather in Chile. That is why we conducted a study on the dynamics of this system, using spectral and non-linear analysis techniques. We obtained periodicities related to internal and external forcing; we find that the dynamics is not chaotic, but it is non-linear. Finally, the northern part presents a strong correlation between ONI and LLE, due to regional characteristics.