Climatology and Trends in Concurrent Temperature Extremes in the Global Extratropics
Abstract. Simultaneous occurrences of multiple heatwaves or cold spells in remote geographical regions have drawn considerable attention in the literature, due to their potentially far-reaching impacts. We introduce a flexible toolbox to study such concurrent temperature extremes, with adjustable parameters that different users can tailor to their specific needs. We then use the toolbox to present a climatological analysis of spatially compounding heatwaves and cold spells in the global midlatitudes. Specific geographical areas, such as Western Russia, Central Europe, Southwestern Eurasia and Western North America, emerge as hotspots for concurrent temperature extremes. Concurrent heatwaves are becoming more frequent, longer-lasting and more extended in the Northern Hemisphere, while the opposite holds for concurrent cold spells. Concurrent heatwaves in the Southern Hemisphere are comparatively rare, but have been increasing in both number and extent. Notably, these trends in concurrent temperature extremes are significantly stronger than the corresponding trends in all temperature extremes.
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